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JMS, Vol. 49, No. 2, 2013


GEOMECHANICS


FROM THE ALTERNATING-SIGN EXPLOSION RESPONSE OF ROCKS TO THE PENDULUM WAVES IN STRESSED GEOMEDIA. PART II
V. V. Adushkin and V. N. Oparin

The article reviews research and development results in the sphere of designing unique apparatuses and equipment for modeling and in situ recording of nonlinear elastic waves and associated electro-magnetic emission in block-hierarchical rock masses in the condition of high stresses. The joint experimental outcomes and theoretical research findings gained by leading institutions of the Russian Academy of Sciences and its branches within recent decades in the framework of integration inter-disciplinary projects offer a methodology and instrumentation support for new promising systems of integrated geomechanical and geophysical monitoring of mining-induced earthquakes and rockbursts in Russian mines that may act as unique natural laboratories for both academic and applied research in the domain of geosciences.

Rock mass, block-hierarchical structure, nonlinear geomechanical processes, instrumentation, earthquakes, rockbursts, blasts, underground excavations, open pit walls, pendulum waves, seismic events, geomechanical-geodynamical safety system

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ZONAL DISINTEGRATION MECHANISM OF THE MICROCRACK-WEAKENED SURROUNDING ROCK MASS IN DEEP CIRCULAR TUNNELS
X. Zhou and Q. Qian

Rock masses without pre-existing macrocracks are considered as granular materials with only microcracks. During excavation of tunnels, microcracks may nucleate, grow and propagate through rock matrix; secondary microcracks may appear, and discontinuous and incompatible deformation of rock masses may occur. The classical continuum elastoplastic theory is not suitable for analyzing discontinuous and incompatible deformation of rock masses any more. In this paper, a new non-Euclidean model is established to investigate zonal disintegration mechanism of the surrounding rock masses around a deep circular tunnel. Effect of damage variable on the zonal disintegration under non-hydrostatic stress condition is taken into account. Based on non-Euclidean model of the discontinuous and incompatible deformation of rock mass, the effect of the half length and density of microcracks on distribution of stresses in the surrounding rock masses around a deep circular tunnel is investigated. The stress concentration at the tips of microcracks located in vicinity of stress wave crest is comparatively large, which may lead to the unstable growth and coalescence of secondary microcracks, and consequently the occurrence of fractured zones. On the other hand, the stress concentration at the tips of microcracks located around stress wave trough is relatively small, which may lead to arrest of microcracks, and thus the non-fractured zones. The alternative appearance of stress wave crest and stress trough thus may induce the alternative occurrence of fractured and non-fractured zones in deep rock masses.

Underground tunnel, zonal disintegration, non-Euclidean model, damage variable

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A CONTINUUM GRAIN-INTERFACE-MATRIX MODEL FOR SLABBING AND ZONAL DISINTEGRATION OF THE CIRCULAR TUNNEL SURROUNDING ROCK
X. Wang, Y. Pan, and X. Wu

It is difficult to numerically reproduce the common failure modes of the circular tunnel surrounding rocks, such as the slabbing or delamination in hard rock, and the zonal disintegration at great depth, based on continuum and homogeneous elastoplastic models. In the present paper, a grain-interface-matrix model is proposed based on continuum elastoplastic theories, and implemented in FLAC. Rock is simplified as a compound of the circular grains, rectangular interfaces, and remaining matrix. These components are modeled by squared elements with the same size. Results show that shear strains exhibit intersecting and multiple shear bands or slip lines extending intergranularly. High principal stresses in compression are found to form rings around the tunnel surface. For fine grains, the intensive rings are found, similar to the slabbing; while for coarse grains, the spacing between rings becomes large, analogous to the zonal disintegration. Thus, a unified mechanism of two kinds of phenomena is explained as the self-organization process of dominant microstructures subjected to forces. Nevertheless, the scale of dominant microstructures regarding or governing the process is different. For hard rock without joints, the scale corresponds to actual grains; while for jointed rock mass under high compressive stresses at great depth, the scale of rock blocks is dominant.

Zonal disintegration, slabbing, self-organization, shear band, tunnel, grain, interface, matrix, dominant microstructures

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33. Wang, M.Y., Fan, P.X., and Li, W.P., Mechanism of Splitting and Unloading Failure of Rock, Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering, 2010, vol. 29, no. 2.
34. Kurlenya, M.V., Oparin, V.N., and Vostrikov, V.I., Pendulum-Type Waves. Part I: State of the Problem and Measuring Instrument and Computer Complexes, Journal of Mining Science, 1996, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 159163.
35. Kurlenya, M.V., Oparin, V.N., and Vostrikov, V.I., Pendulum-Type Waves. Part II: Experimental Methods and Main Results of Physical Modeling, Journal of Mining Science, 1996, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 245273.
36. Kurlenya, M.V., Oparin, V.N., and Vostrikov, V.I., Pendulum-Type Waves. Part III: Data on On-Site Observations, Journal of Mining Science, 1996, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 341361.
37. Oparin, V.N. and Tanaino, A.S., Kanonicheskaya shkala ierarkhicheskikh predstavlenii v gornom porodovedenii (Canonical Scale of Hierarchical Approach in Rock Science), Novosibirsk: Nauka, 2011.


ANOMALOUS P-WAVE AND S-WAVE VELOCITIES IN. A. BLOCKY NATURAL SANDSTONE SPECIMEN
E. I. Mashinsky and G. V. Egorov

The article studies velocities of P-waves and S-waves in a natural sandstone specimen exposed to axial thrust. The cylindrical core specimen 1 m long and 0.08 m in diameter is composed of different size blocks. Anomalous velocities of the P-waves and S-waves (46 kHz) have been revealed by measurements in the whole specimen, in its separate blocks and at contacts surfaces between the blocks. The velocities in the whole specimen are much smaller than in its separate blocks. The interblock contacts detain and decelerate the waves. With smaller spacing at the contacts between the blocks, the wave velocities linearly drop to anomalously low vales (hundreds m/s). With higher pressure on the specimen, the wave velocities nonlinearly grow and delay time reduces. The curve VP / VSpressure has a peak (1 MPa) that appears for separate blocks and for the whole specimen. The anomalous velocities VP and VS are alleged to appear due to inelastic processes at microcontact surfaces under acoustic wave propagation in the blocky medium.

Micro-nonuniform blocky media, inelasticity, nonlinearity, velocities of P-waves and S-waves, jointing, geostatic pressure

REFERENCES
1. Kurlenya, M.V., Oparin, V.N., and Vostrikv, V.I., Origination of Elastic Wave Packages in Blocky Media under Pulsed Treatment. Pendulum-Type Waves // Dokl. RAN SSSR, 1993, vol. 333, no. 4.
2. Sadovsky, M.A., Natural Lumpiness of Rocks, Dokl.RAN SSSR, 1979, vol. 247, no. 4.
3. Zaitsev, V.Yu. and Matveev, L.A., Amplitude-Dependent Dissipation in Micro-Nonuniform Media with Linear Absorption and Nonlinear Elasticity, Geolog. Geofiz., 2006, vol. 47, no. 5.
4. Mashinsky, E.I., Koksharov, V.Z., and Nefedkin, Yu.A., Amplitude-Dependent Effects in a Small Seismic Strain Range, Geolog. Geofiz., 1999, vol. 40, no. 4.
5. Mashinsky, E.I., Amplitude Dependence of Seismic Wave Velocities, Fiz. Zemli, 2003, no. 12.
6. Oparin, V.N., et al., Geomekhanicheskie i tekhnicheskie osnovy uvelicheniya nefteotdachi plastov v vibrovolnovykh tekhnologiyakh (Geomechanical and Engineering Basis of Enhanced Oil Recovery by Vibro-Wave Treatment), Novosibirsk: Nauka, 2010.
7. Ayzenberg-Stepanenko, M.V. and Sher, E.N., Modeling Wave Events in Structured Media, Fiz. Mezomekh., 2007, vol. 10, no. 1.
8. Aleksandrova, N.I., Chernikov, A.G., and Sher, E.N., Experimental Investigation in the One-Dimensional Calculated Model of Wave Propagation in Block Medium, Journal of mining Science, 2005, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 232239.
9. Aleskandrova, N.I., Chernikov, A.G., and Sher, E.N., On Attenuation of Pendulum-Type Waves in a Block Rock Mass, Journal of Mining Science, 2006, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 468475.
10. Aleksandrova, N.I., Sher, E.N., and Chernikov, A.G., Effect of Viscosity of Partings in Block- Hierarchical Media on Propagation of Low-Frequency Waves, Journal of Mining Science, 2008, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 222234.
11. Sher, E.N., Aleksandrova, N.I., Ayzenberg-Stepanenko, M.V., and Chernikov, A.G., Influence of the Block-Hierarchical Structure of Rocks on the Damage Accumulation Criterion, Journal of Mining Science, 2007, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 575584.
12. Aleksandrov, N.I. and Sher, E.N., Wave Propagation in the 2D Periodical Model of a Block-Structured Medium. Part I: Characteristics of Waves under Impulsive Impact, Journal of Mining Science, 2010, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 639649.
13. Egorov, G.V., Nonlinear Elastic Effects in a Dry and Humidified Porous Coherent Specimen, Fiz. Mezomekh., 2004, vol. 7, no. 1..
14. Pyrak-Nolte, L.J., Myer, L.R., and Cook, N. G. W., Transmission of Seismic Wave across Single Natural Fractures, J. Geophys. Res., 1990, vol. 95, no. 6.
15. Mashinsky, E.I., Seismo-Microplasticity Ohenomenon in the Rocks, Natural Science, 2010, vol. 2, no. 3.
16. Mashinsky, E.I., Microplasticity Effect in Low-Velocity Zone Induced by Seismic Wave, Journal of Applied Geophysics, 2012, vol. 83.
17. Clark, V.A., Tittmann, B.R., and Spencer, T.W., Effect of Volatiles on Attenuation (Q-1) and Velocity in Sedimentary Rocks, J. Geophys. Res., 1980, vol. 85, no. B10.
18. Urakaev, F.Kh., Savintsev, Yu.P., and Shevchenko, V.S., Mechanochemical Synthesis of Noncentrosymmetric Oxide Compounds, Izv. RAN, 2011, vol. 75, no. 8.
19. Zaitsev, V.Yu. and Sas, P., Influnce of Highly Compressible Porosity on Ranges of the P- and S-Waves in Dry and Humidified Rocks: Comparison of the Model and Experiment, Fiz. Mezomekh., 2004, vol. 7, no. 1.


THEORETICAL GROUND FOR ORIGINATION OF NORMAL HORIZONTAL STRESSES IN ROCK MASSES
L. M. Vasilev and D. L. Vasilev

The authors show that normal horizontal stresses, either tensile or compressive, including horizontal stresses higher than vertical stresses, are initiated by contact friction between rock mass layers.

Normal horizontal stresses, ground pressure, rocks, shear resistance, contact friction coefficient, internal friction coefficient

REFERENCES
1. Kurlenya, M.V. and Kulakov, G.I., Stress-State of Rock Upper Layers of Earths Crust, Journal of Mining Science, 1998, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 191195.
2. Neverov, S.A., Types of Orebodies on the Basis of the Occurrence Depth and Stress State. Part I: Modern Concept of the Stress State versus Depth, Journal of Mining Science, 2012, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 249259.
3. Neverov, S.A., Types of Orebodies on the Basis of the Occurrence Depth and Stress State. Part II Orebody Tectonotypes and Geomedium Models, Journal of Mining Science, 2012, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 421428.
4. Kurlenya, M.V., Experimental Results on Stresses in Coal in Kuzbass, in Napryazhennoe sostoyanie zemnoy kory (Stress State of Earths Crust), Moscow: Nauka, 1973.
5. Galushko, P.Ya., et al., Stress Research in Rock Masses in the Donetsk and LvovVolynsk Coal Basins, in Napryazhennoe sostoyanie zemnoy kory (Stress State of Earths Crust), Moscow: Nauka, 1973.
6. Kurlenya, M.V. (Ed.), Upravlenie gornym davleniem v tektonicheski napryzhennykh massivakh (Ground Control in Rock Mass under High Tectonic Stresses),
7. Shamanskaya, A.T. and Egorov, P.V., Relationship of Tectonic Elements and Modern Stress Filed in Gornaya Shoria, in Napryazhennoe sostoyanie zemnoy kory (Stress State of Earths Crust), Moscow: Nauka, 1973.
8. Zabigailo, V.E. and Bely, I.S., Geologicheskie factory razrusheniya kerna pri ,ernii napryazhennykh gornykh porod Donbassa (Geological Causes of Damage of Drill Core Samples in Donbass Rocks Exposed to High Stresses), Kiev: Naukova dumka, 1981.
9. Aitmatov, I.T., Geomekhanika rudnykh mestorozhdenii Srednei Azii (Geomechanics of Orebodies in Central Asia), Frunze: Ilim, 1987.
10. Tadzhibaev, K.T., Usloviya dinamicheskogo razrusheniya gornykh porod i prichiny gornykh udarov (Dynamic Failure Conditions and Rockbursting Causes in Rocks), Frunze: Ilim, 1989.
11. Gorbatsevich, F.F. and Savchenko, S.N., Modern Stresses on the North of the Baltic Shield by the Data on Pechenga Geoblock and Profile of the Kola Superdeep Borehole, Geofiz. Zh., 2009, vol. 31, no. 6.
12. Brudy, M., Zoback, M.D., Fuchs, ., Rummel, F., and Baumgaertner, J., Estimation of the Total Stress Tensor to 8 km Depth in the KTB Scientific Drill Holes: Implications for Crustal Strength, J. Geophys. Res., 1997, vol. 102, no. B8.
13. Birger, NN.A. and Mavlyutov, R. R. Soprotivlenie materialov (Strength of Materials), Moscow: Nauka, 1986.
14. Sokolovsky, V.V., Statika sypuchei sredy (Statics in Granular Medium), Moscow: Nauka, 1990.
15. Krupennikov, G.A., Filatov, N.A., Amusin, B.Z., et al., Raspredelenie napryazhenii v porodnykh massivakh (Stress Distribution in Rock Masses), Moscow: Nauka, 1972.


SCIENCE OF MINING MACHINES


CIRCULATION SYSTEM OF. A. PNEUMATIC DRILL WITH CENTRAL DRILLING MUD REMOVAL
A. A. Lipin, Yu. P. Kharlamov, and V. V. Timonin

The article describes experimental testing of a pneumatic drill tool with reverse circulation of drill fluid. The authors assessed rational clearance between downhole packer and drill hole walls and propose an engineering design aimed for higher performance of the pneumatic drill circulation system.

Drilling tool, ring pneumatic drill, reverse circulation, drill fluid, circulation system, downhole packer, air curtain

REFERENCES
1. Express-Service: Technique, Technology and Exploration Management, VIEMS Zh., 1991, no. 2.
2. Air Percussion Drilling by Tools with Central Drill Mud Removal, Proc. Int. Conf. Fundamental problems of geo-Environment Formation under Industrial Impact, Novosibirsk, IGD SO RAN, 2009.
3. Sykchin, M.E., Effect on an Ejector Device on the Operation of a Ring Pneumatic Striker, Journal of Mining Science, 1992, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 276278.
4. Smolyanitsky, B.N. and Danilov, B.B., Downhole Exploration Pneumatic Impact Tools with Central Drill Mud Removal, Gorn Mash Avtomat., 2002, no. 5.
5. Lipin, A.A. and Smolyanitsky, B.N., RF patent no. 2067148, Byull. Izobret., 1996, no. 7.
6. Lipin, A.A. and Zima, S.A., RF patent no. 2109124, Byull. Izobret., 1998, no. 11.
7. Kharlamov, Yu.P., Current State and Prospects of Building Pile Foundations in Oil and Gas Reservoir Mining in South Yakutia, Proc. Int. Conf. Fundamental problems of geo-Environment Formation under Industrial Impact, Novosibirsk, IGD SO RAN, 2009.
8. Kharlamov, Yu.P. and Timonin, V.V., Design of Test Stand for Reverse Drill Mud Circulation System of Pneumatic Impact Tool, Proc. Int. Conf. Fundamental problems of geo-Environment Formation under Industrial Impact, Novosibirsk, IGD SO RAN, 2012.
9. Kharlamov, Yu.P. and Zabolotskaya, N.N., RF patent no. 111182, Byull. Izobret., 2011, no. 34.


MINERAL MINING TECHNOLOGY


OPTIMIZATION OF THE FULLY-MECHANIZED STOPING FACE LENGTH AND EFFICIENCY IN. A. COAL MINE
A. A. Ordin and A. A. Metelkov

The authors formulate a problem and present analytical solutions on optimizing length of a fully-mechanized stoping face based on the maximum profit criterion.

Optimization, profit, length and efficiency of the fully-mechanized stoping face, mine

REFERENCES
1. Burger, K.E. and Ericsion, E., The Optimization of Coal Mine Production Schedules Using Linear Programming: An Example That Determines the Effects of Reclamation Costs and Interest Rates, Mining Sci. and Technol., 1984, no. 1.
2. Lizotte, Y. and Elbrond, J., Choice of Mine-Mill Capacities and Production Schedules Using Open-Ended Dynamic Programming, CIM Bull., 1982, vol. 75, March.
3. Corbyn, J.A., Optimum Life of a Resource Depleting Project, Mining Engineering, 1985, no. 3.
4. Sturgul J. R. Optimum life of mine: declining production case, Int. J. Mining Engineering, 1985, no. 3.
5. Li, Z., A Theoretical Approach to Determination of Mine Life and Design Capacity, Int. J. Surf. Mining, 1989, nol. 3.
6. Fuentes, S.S., Going to an Underground Mining Method, Proceedings of Mass Min. Conf., Santiago, Chile, 2004.
7. DimitrakopoulosStochastic Optimization for Strategic Mine Planning: A decade of Developments, Journal of Mining Science, 2001, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 138150.
8. Boky, B.I., Prakticheskii kurs gornogo iskusstva (Mining Art: Practical Course), Saint-Petersburg, 1914.
9. Boky, B.I., Analiticheskii kurs gornogo iskusstva (Mining Art: Analytical Course), Moscow, 1929.
10. Shevyakov, L.D., Osnovy proektirovaniya ugolnykh shakht (Fundamentals of Coal Mine Planning), Moscow: Ugletekhizdat, 1958.
11. Lipkovich, S.M., Osnovy proektirovaniya ugolnykh shakht (Fundamentals of Coal Mine Planning), Moscow: Nedra, 1967.
12. Zvyagin, P.Z., Sovremennye metody proektirovaniya ugolnykh shakht (Modern Methods of Coal Mine Planning), Moscow: 1968.
13. Kurnosov, A.M., Rozentreter, B.A., Ustinov, M.I., et al., Nauchnye osnove proektirovaniya ugolnykh shalht dlya razrabotki pologikh plastov (Scientific Basis of Flat Bed Coal Mine Planning), Moscow: Nauka, 1964.
14. Tsoi, S. And Tskhai, S.M., Prikladnnaya teoriya grafov (Applied Theory of Graphs), Alma-Ata, Nauka, 1971.
15. Rogov, E.I., Teoriya i metody matematicheskogo modelirovaniya proizvodstvennykh protsessov v gornom dele (Theory and Methods of Math Modeling of Mining Operations), Alma-Ata: Nauka, 1973.
16. Rogov, E.I., Gritsko, G.I., and Vylegzhanin, V.N., Matematicheskie modeli adaptatsii protsessov i podsistem ugolnoi shakhty (Adaptation Math Models for Operations and Subsystems in a Coal Mine), Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1979.
17. Adilov, K.N., Sovershenstvovanie tekhnologii podzemnoi otrabotki plastovykh mestorozhdenii (Improvement of Underground Bedded Deposit Mining), Moscow: Nedra: 1979.
18. Astakhov, .S., Dinamicheskie metody otsenki effektivnosti gornogo proizvodstva (Dynamic Evaluation of Mine Performance), Moscow: Nedra, 1973.
19. Dronov, N.V., Optimizatsiya gorno-ekonomicheskikh parametrov rudnikov (Optimization of Mining and Economic Output of Underground Mines), Frunze: Ilim, 1982.
20. Shtele, V.I., Kusinsh, Ya.Ya., and Korneev, V.P., Modelirovanie organizatsii rabot v podzemnykh zabioyakh (Modeling of Underground Mine Face Site Organization), Novosibirsk: IGD SO AN SSSR, 1987.
21. Vylegzhanin, V.N., Basic Analytical Relations of Mine Parameters, Sovershenstvovanie tekhnologii otrabotki ugolnykh mestorozhdenii Kuzbassa (Improvement of Mining Technology for Kuzbass Coal), Kemerovo, 1991.
22. Strekachinsky, G.A., Teoriya i chislennye modeli vskrytiya mestorozhdenii (Theory and Numerical Models of Deposit Opening-Up), Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1983.
23. Gorbachev, D.T., Krashkin, I.S., and Salamatin, A.G., Multiple Auger Approach to Extraction Fied Preparation in Promising Mines, Ugol, 1997, no. 6.
24. Yalevsky, V.D., Development of Conception on Large technology Modular Complexes in Kuzbass, Dr. Eng. Dissertation, Novosibirsk: IGD SO RAN, 1988.
25. Fedorin, V.A., Development of Modular Technological Structure for Opening-Up and Preparation of Mine Fields in Kuzbass, Dr. Eng. Dissertation, Kemerovo: IU SO RAN, 2000.
26. Ordin, A.A., Analytical Solution of a Problem on Optimization of a Fully-Mechanized Stoping Fade Length, Voprosy sovershenstvovaniya gornykh rabot na shakhtakh i karerakh Sibiri (Mining Improvement in Surface and Underground Mines in Siberia), Novosibirsk: IGD SO AN SSSR, 1990.
27. Kodola, V.V. and Ordin, A.A., Technological Optimization in Underground Mine Site Planning in Operating Sibirginsky Open Pit Mine, Ugol, 2000, no. 8.
28. Ordin, A.A. and Klishin, V.I., Energy Analysis of Open-Pit Operations, Journal of Mining Science, 1996, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 553558.
29. Ordin, A.A.,Zyryanov, S.A., Nikolsky, A.M., et al., Principles of Calculating Fully-Mechanized Stoping Face Production by Technological Factors in Program Proza-3.0, Int. Sci.-Practic. Conf. Proc. Science-Intensive Technologies of Mineral Mining and Utilization, Novokuznetsk, 2012.
30. Korovkin, Yu.A., Savchenko, P.F. and Burakov, V.A., Production of a Fullky-Mechanized Stoping Face Equipped under Leasing Projects, Ugol, 2011, no. 5.
31. Plotnikov, V.P., Formula of Capacity of Cutter-Loaders with Auger, Drum or Bit Cutting Tool, Ugol, 2009, no. 9.
32. Mester, D.I., Improvement of Calculation Methods for Stoping face Capacity Based on Heuristic Self-Organization of Seacrh for Optimum Solutions, Cand. Tech. Sci. Dissertation, Karaganda, 1982.
33. Livshits, V.N., Optimizatsiya pri perspektivnom planirovanii i proektirovanii (Optimization of Long-Term Planning and Designing), Moscow: Ekonimika, 1984.
34. Maleev, G.V., Gulyaev, V.G., Boiko, N.G., et al., Proektirovanie i konstruirovanie gornykh mashin i kompleksov (Desing and Engineering of Mining machines and Machine Complexes), Moscow: Nedra, 1988.
35. Aleksandrov, B.A., Kozhukhov, L.F., Antonov, Yu.A., et al., Gornye mashiny i oborudovanie podzemnykh razrabotok (Underground Mining Machines and Equipment), Kemerovo: KuzGTU, 2006.
36. Kosminov, E.A., Remezov, A.V., Ordin, A.A., and Klishin, V.I., Optimized Search for Profitable Capacity of a Fully-Mechanized Stoping fadce, Ugol, 1997, no. 10.
37. Polovlo, A.M. and Guriv, S.V., Osnovy teorii nadezhnosti (Fundamentals of Reliability Theory), Saint-Petersburg, 2006.


GEOMECHANICAL ASSESSMENT OF ORE DRAWPOINT STABILITY IN MINING WITH CAVING
S. A. Neverov and A. A. Neverov

The authors solve the problem on stressstrain state of adjacent rocks of ore passes arranged in the face area under caved ore and the ore passes arranged both lengthwise the stope and in the stope face area (the face ore drawing scheme and the stope-through drawing, respectively) by using the finite element method. The article describes stress distribution in higher stress zones and in distressed areas depending on ore discharge preparation techniques at depths down to 1.5 km.

Rock mass, face ore discharge, combined face-throughout ore drawing, depth, stress state, stability

REFERENCES
1. Skornyakov, Yu.G., Podzemnaya dobycha rud kompeksami samokhodnykh mashin (Underground Ore Mining with Self-Propelled Machinery), Moscow: Nedra, 1986.
2. Freidin, A.M., Neverov, A.A., Neverov, S.A., and Filippov, P.A., Sovremennye sposoby razrabotki rudnykh zalezhei s obrusheniem na bolshikh glubinakh (Modern Deep Ore Mining Methods with Caving), Tapsiev, A.P. (Ed.), Novosibirsk: SO RAN, 2008.
3. Oparin, V.N., Rusin, E.P., Tapsiev, A.P., et al, Mirovoi opyt avtomatizatsii gornykh rabot na podzemnykh rudnikakh (Global Experience of Underground Mining Automation), Melnikov, N.N. (Ed.), Novosibirsk: SO RAN, 2007.
4. Neverov, S.A.,, Freidin, A.M., and Neverov, A.A., RF patent no. 2301335, Byull. Izobret., 2007, no. 17.
5. Freidin, A.M., Korenkov, E.N., Filippov, P.A., et al., RF patent no. 2208162, Byull. Izobret., 2003, no. 19.
6. Freidin, A.M., Filippov, P.A., Gaidin, S.P., Korenkov, E.N., and Neverov, S.A., Prospect of Technical Re-Equipment in Underground Mines of the Metallurgy Complex in West Siberia, Journal of Mining Science, 2004, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 283291.
7. Freidin, A.M. and Neverov, S.A., Modeling of AreaEnd Ore Drawing under Caved Rocks, Journal of Mining Science, 2005, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 436446.
8. Zienkiewicz, O., The Finite Element method in Engineering Science, McGraw Hill, 1971.
9. Neverov, S.A., Types of Ore Bodies on the Basis of the Occurrence Depth and Stress State. Part I: Modern Concept of the Stress Sate versus Depth, Journal of Mining Science, 2012, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 249259.
10. Neverov, S.A., Types of Ore Bodies on the Basis of the Occurrence Depth and Stress State. Part II: Orebody Tectonotypes and Geomedium Models, Journal of Mining Science, 2012, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 421428.
11. Kazikaev, D.M., Geomekhanika podzemnoi razrabotki rud: uchebnik dlya vuzov (Geomechanics of Underground Ore Mining: College Textbook), Moscow: MGGU, 2005.
12. Boltengagen, I.L, Korenkov, E.N., Popov, S.N., and Freidin, A.M., Geomechanical Substantiation of the Parameters of a Continuous Chamber System of Mining with Caving of Roof Rocks, Journal of Mining Science, 1997, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 5663.
13. Litvinsky, G.G., Analitichekaya teoriya prochnosti gornykh porod i massivov (Analytical Theory of Strength of Rocks and Rock Masses), Donetsk: Nord-Press, 2008.
14. Necerov, A.A., Geomechanical Substantiation of Modified Room-Work in Flat Thick Deposits with Ore Drawing Under Overhang, Journal of Mining Science, 2012, vol. 48, o. 6, pp. 10161024.
15. Freidin, A.M., Neverov, A.A., and Neverov, S.A., Geomechanical Estimate of Mining Conditions at the Makmal Gold Deposit, Journal of Mining Science, 2009, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 475484.
16. Baklashov, et al., Geomekhanika: uchebnik dlya vuzov (Geomechanics: College Textbook), Moscow: MGGU, 2004.


COMPLEX-STRUCTURE GOLD PLACER MINING IN YAKUTIA
S. A. Ermakov and A. M. Burakov

The gold placer in the valley of the River Bolshoi Kurunakh occurs in complicated geological and mining conditions and is characterized by a highly nonuniform gold quality. Modeling showed that the reserves occur in clusters distributed all over the productive sand extension. High clay content and liberal share of fine gold impede processing and reduce the output. The article offers a combined processing technology for the given placer, based on pre-concentrating of commercial mineral, and specifies further research.

Placer, nonuniformity, clay content, quality of gold reserves, processing, mining situation modeling

REFERENCES
1. Braiko, V.N. and Ivanov, V.N., Gold Mining Industry Results in 2009, Zolotodobycha, 2010, no. 136.
2. Burakov, A.M., Ermakov, S.A., and Blinov, A.A., Nourishment Source of the Kuranakh Buried Placer and the Influence on Gold Extraction Technologies, Problemy osvoeniya i perspektivy razvitiya Yuzhno-Yakutskogo regiona: cb. nauch. tr. (Development and Prospects of the South Yakutia: Collection of Scientific Papers), Neryungri: IGDS SO RAN, 2001.
3. Tipovye metodicheskie polozheniya po primeneniyu konditsii na tverdye poleznye iskopaemye v protsesse razrabotki mestorozhdenii (Exemplary Provisions on Hard Mineral Quality Requirements in the Course of Mining), Moscow: IPKON AN SSSR, 1981.
4. Batuginm, S.A. and Cherny, E.D., Teoreticheskie osnoby oprobyvaniya i otsenki zapasov mestorozhdenii (Theoretical Bases of Mineral Sampling and Reserves Estimation), Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1998.
5. Zamyatin, O.V and Mankov, V.M., Current Processing Technologies fort Placer Gold, Gorny Zh., 2001, no. 5.
6. Ermakov, S.A., Burakov, A.M., Zaudalsky, I.I., and Panishev, S.V., Sovershenstvovanie geotekhnologii otkrytpoi razrabotki mestorozhdenii Severa (Improvement of Surface Mining Geotechnolgies on the North), Yakutsk: SO RAN, 2004.
7. Ermakov, S.A. and Burakov, A.M., Application of Gravity Separation in Multi-Stage Processing of Placer Gold, Proc. 5th Sci. Conf. Current Material Resource Utilization Technologies, Krasnoyarsk: SFU, 2007.
8. Ermakov, S.A., Burakov, A.M., Panishev, S.V., Kasanov, I.S.,and Ivanov, I.V., RF patent no. 2449126, Byull Izobret., 2012, no. 12.


TEMPERATURE EFFECT ON STRIPPING PERFORMANCE IN PERMAFROST ZONE
S. V. Panishev and S. A. Ermakov

In terms of Kangalassky Open Pit Mine, the authors discuss in situ monitoring of temperature on the surface of blasted overburden rock mass in the course of gradual dragline operation. It is shown that dragline capacity can be related with the surface layer temperature and average size of the blasted overburden fragment.

Permafrost rocks, regelation, overburden temperature, average fragment size, dragline, capacity

REFERENCES
1. Zaudalsky, I.I., Marchenko, A.S., Petrov, S.N., et al., Authors Certificate no. 1624152, Byull. Izobret., 1991, no. 4.
2. Bondarev, E.A. and Faiko. L.I., Thermal and Physical Criteria of Freezing, Fizika lda i ldotekhnika (Ice Physics and Ice Machinery), Yakutsk: YAF SO AN SSSR, 1974.
3. Sleptsov, V.M. and Kurilko, A.S., Calculation of Pitwall Sloughing Dynamics in Carbonate Rocks with Different Freeze Resistance, Journal of Mining Science, 2013, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 3035.
4. Pavlov, A.V. and Olovin, B.A., Iskusstvennoe ottaivanie merzlykh porod teplom solnechnoi radiatsii pri razrabotke rossypei (Forced Thawing of Frozen Rocks by Insolation in Placer Mining), Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1974.
5. Perlshtein, G.Z., Vodno-teplovaya melioratsiya merzlykh porod na severo-vostoke SSSR (Water-and-Heat Melioration of Frozen Rocks on the North-East of the USSR), Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1979.
6. Gavrilev, R.I., Teplofizicheskie svoistva komponentov prirodnoi sredy v kriolotozone (Thermal and Physical Properties of the Natural Environment Components in the Permafrost Zone), Novosibirsk: SO RAN, 2004.


MINERAL DRESSING


MECHANICAL DESTRUCTION OF FLOCCULES BY SHEARING
V. E. Vigdergauz and G. Yu. Golberg

Based on the analysis of ultimate stress of floccules under shear, the authors determine maximum force and stress for bridges between particles of solid to keep strong. The rheological research shows that flocculating structures in concentrate suspensions and in coal flotation suspension are kindred with liquid-like pseudo-plastic systems by nature of flow. The experimentally obtained ultimate dynamic shear stresses depending on dosing of flocculants are comparable with theoretical calculations and differ from the latter by 25% at the most.

Flocculating structures, ultimate shear stress, rheology, pseudo-plasticity

REFERENCES
1. Rebinder, P.A., Surface Phenomena in Dispersed Systems, Fiziko-khimicheskaya mekhanika. Izbr. trudy (Physicochemical Mechanics. Selectals), Moscow: 1979.
2. Urev, N.B., Vysokokontsentrirovannye dispersnye sistemy (High-Concentrated Dispersed Systems), Moscow: Khimiya, 1980.
3. Urev, N.B., Fiziko-khimicheskie osnovy tekhnologii dispersnykh system i materialov (Physicochemical Basics of the Technology for Dispersed Systems and Materials), Moscow: Khimiya, 1988.
4. Urev, N.B. and Potanin, A.A., Tekuchest suspenzii i poroshkov (Flow property of Suspensions and Powders), Moscow: Khimiya, 1992.
5. Urve, N.B., Physicochemical Dynamics of Dispersed Systems, Usp. khimii, 2004, vol. 73, no. 1.
6. Urev, N.B. and Kuchin, I.V., Modeling Dynamic state of Dispersed Systems, Usp. khim., 2006, vol. 75, no. 1.
7. Scales, P.J., et al., Shear Yield Stress of Partially Flocculated Colloidal Suspensions, AIChE Journal, 1998, vol. 44, no. 3.
8. Zhongwu Zhou, Peter J. Scales, and David V. Boger, Chemical and Physical Control of the Rheology of Concentrated Metal Oxide Suspensions, Chemical Engineering Science, 2001, vol. 56, no. 9.
9. McFarlane, A.J., Addai-Mensah J., and Bremmell K., Rheology of flocculated kaolinite dispersions, Korea-Australia Rheology Journal, 2005, vol. 17, no. 4.
10. Matthew L. Taylor, Gayle E. Morris, Peter G. Self, and Roger St. C. Smart, Kinetics of Adsorption of High Molecular Weight Anionic Polyacrylamide onto Kaolinite: The Flocculation Process, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 2002, vol. 250, no. 1.
11. Christopher M. Fellows and William O. S. Doherty, Insights into Bridging Flocculation, Macromolecular Symposia, 2006, vol. 231.
12. Tadros, T., Interaction Forces between Particles Containing Grafted or Adsorbed Polymer Layers, Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 2003, vol. 104.
13. Heiko Haschke, Mervyn J. Miles, and Vasileios Koutsos, Conformation of a Single Polyacrylamide Molecule Adsorbed onto a Mica Surface Studied with Atomic Force Microscopy, Macromolecules, 2004, vol. 37, no. 10.
14. Biggs, S., Steric and Bridging Forces between Surfaces Bearing Adsorbed Polymer: An Atomic Force Microscopy Study, Langmuir, 1996, vol. 11.
15. Wei Sun, Jun Long, Zhenghe Xu, and Jacob H. Masliyah, Study of Al(OH)3-Polyacrylamide-Induced Pelleting Flocculation by Single Molecule Force Spectroscopy, Langmuir, 2008, vol. 24, no. 24.
16. Shuxun Cui, Chuanjun Liu, and Xi Zhang, Simple Method to Isolate Single Polymer Chains for the Direct Measurement of the Desorption Force, Nano Letters, 2003, vol. 3, no. 2.
17. Israelachvili, J.N., Intermolecular and Surface Forces, Second Edition, London: Academic Press, 1992.
18. Rubinshtein, Yu.B., Yarovaya, O.V., Golberg, G.Yu., and Novak, V.I., Bases for Using Polyacrylamide Flocculants in Selective Separation of Coal Slurry, Gorny Zh., 2011, no. 2.
19. http://www.anton-paar.com/MCR-Rheometer-Series/Rheometer.


TRIBOCHEMICAL TREATMENT OF FELDSPATHICQUARTZ ORE IN FROTH SEPARATION
T. S. Yusupov, E. A. Kirillova, and M. P. Lebedev

Principles of tribochemical treatment of minerals have been developed to control the mineral flotation ability. It is found that floatability of quartz depends on the quartz electronic structure. Using feldspathicquartz ore as an example, the authors illustrate the improvement in separability of the minerals and the ecological friendliness of the tribochemical treatment.

Tribochemical treatment, electronic structure, quartz, feldspar, flotation, beneficiation, minerals

REFERENCES
1. Heinicke, G., Tribochemistry, Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich, 1985.
2. Molchanov, V.I. and Yusupov, T.S., Fizicheskie i khimicheskie svoistva tonko dispergirovannykh mineralov (Physical and Chemical Properties of Fine Dispersed Minerals), Moscow: Nedra, 1981.
3. Eigeles, M.A., Flotatsiya nesulfidnykh mineralov (Flotation of Non-Sulfide Minerals), Moscow: Nedra, 1970.
4. Revnivtsev, V.I., Obogashchenie polevykh shpatov i kvartsev (Beneficiation of Feldspar and Quartz), Moscow: Nedra, 1952.
5. Zadorozhny, V.K. and Yakubovsky, Yu.M., Feldspathic Ore Concentration, Problemy proizvodstva i ispolzovaniya polevoshpatovogo syrya; sb. st. (Problems of Felsdspathic Material Production and Use: Collected Wortks), Apatity: AN SSSR, 1980.
6. Steinike, U., Mechanically Induced Reaction Capacity of Quartz and Its Connection with Real Structure, Izv. SO AN SSSR, 1985, issue 3.
7. Bobyshev A. A. and Radtsig, V.A., Structure of Defects Generated by Mechanical Activation, Khim. Fiz., 1985, no. 3.
8. Istomin, V.E., Koroleva, S.M., and Yusupov, T.S., Electron Paramagnetic Resonance-Based Analysis of Mechanically Activated Quartz Surface Layer, Poverkhn., 1984, no. 1.
9. Yusupov, T.S. and Koroleva, S.M., Effect of Mechanical Activation on Depression of Quartz in Flotation, Journal of Mining Science, 1985, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 554557.


EFFECT OF ACCUMULATED ENERGY QUANTITY ON STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN RARE METAL CONCENTRATES UNDER MECHANICAL ACTIVATION
E. V. Bogatyreva and A. G. Ermilov

The authors discuss the probe-tested method of estimating quantity of accumulated energy in mechanical activation of wolframite, loparite and scheelite concentrates using X-ray crystal analysis data. The article proposes relations to calculate changes in energy quantity accumulated in phases of rare metal concentrates under dry and wet mechanical activation.

Mechanical activation, X-ray crystal analysis, wolframite, loparite, scheelite

REFERENCES
1. Zelikman, A.N., Voldman, G.M., and Ermilov, A.G., Effect of Mechanical Activation on Dissection of Zinc by Baking with Calcium Carbonate, Nauch. Trudy MISiS, 1979, no. 117.
2. Voldman, G.M., Zelikman, A.N., and Ermilov, A.G., Estimating Level of Effects Mechanical Activation on Materials, Izv. vuzov, Tsvet. Metallurg., 1979, no. 4.
3. Ermilov, A.G., Safonov, V.V., Doroshko, L.F., et al., Estimate of Energy Share Accumulated on Mechanical Activation Using X-Ray Study, Izv. vuzov, Tsvet. Metallurg., 2002, no. 3.
4. Shelekhov, E.V. and Sviridova, T.A., Programs of X-Ray Analysis of Polycrystals, MiTOM, 2000, no. 8.
5. Zuev, V.V., Aksenova, G.A., Mochalov, N.A., et al., Specific Energies of Crystal Lattices of Minerals and Inorganic Crystals for Estimation of Their Properties, Obog. Rud, 1999, nos. 12.
6. Maksimyuk, I.K., Kassiterity i volframity (Cassiterites and Wolframites), S. A. Yushko (Ed.), Moscow: Nedra, 1973.
7. Medvedev, A.S., Vyshchelachivanie i sposoby ego intensifikatsii (Leaching and Its Stimulation Techniques), Moscow: MISiS, 2005.
8. Voldman, G.M. and Zelikman, A.N., Teoriya metallurgicheskikh protsessov (Theory of Metallurgical Production Processes), Moscow: Metallurgiya, 1993.
9. Bogatyreva, E.V., Ermilov, A.G., and Podshibyakina, K.V., Estimate of Share of Enegry Accumulated in Mechanical Activation of Wolframite Concentrate, Neorg. Mater., 2009, vol. 45, no. 11.
10. Bogatyreva, E.V., Ermilov, A.G., Sviridova, T.A., Savina, O.S., and Podshibyakina, K.V., Effect of Mechanical Activation Length on Reactivity of Wolframite Concentrates, Neorg. Mater., 2001, vol. 47, no. 6.
11. Bogatyreva, E.V. and Ermilov, A.G., Estimating Efficiency of Mechanical Activation of Loparite Concentrate, Neorg. Mater., 2011, vol. 47, no. 9.


ENTROPY OF TWO-PHASE FLOWS IN THE MODE OF SEPARATION
E. M. Barsky

The new-developed approach to analyzing two-phase flow in mineral separation and beneficiation is based on the physical analogy of the flows and the perfect gas kinetic theory. The analysis from these viewpoints allowed formulation and basis of the invariants of such flows, where the key invariant is entropy of the two-phase flow, and its derivatives are separation potential, chaotization factor and mobility. The mathematical modeling of the two-phase flow from the new points of view permits analysis of the flow using statistical mechanics techniques.

Separation, invariance, entropy, flow velocity, mineral beneficiation, mathematic model

REFERENCES
1. Hiciylmaz, C., Ulusoy, U., Bilgen, S., Yekeler, M., and Akdogan, G., Response of Rough and Acute Surfaces of Pyrite with 3D Approach to the Flotation, Journal of Mining Science, 2006, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 393402.
2. Krasnoshtein, A.E., Kazakov, B.P., and Shalimov, A.V., Modeling Complex AirGasHeat Dynamic Processes in a Mine, Journal of Mining Science, 2008, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 616621.
3. Prigogine, I. and Stengers, I., Order out of Chaos, Bantam Books, 1984.
4. Barsky, M., Fractionating of Powders, Moscow: Nedra, 1980.
5. Kittel, C., Thermal Physics, New York: John Willy and Sons, Inc., 1977.
6. Brilloun, L., Science and Information Theory, New York: Academic Press Inc., 1977.
7. Barsky, E. and Barsky, M., Cascade Separation of Powders, Cambridge: Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2006.
8. Mandelbrot, B., The Fractal Geometry of Nature, New York: Freeman, 1982.
9. Ackeret, J., Die Entwiklung des Entropiebegriffes, Schweizerische Bauzeitung, 1959, no. 5.
10. Chambadal, P., Evolution et Applications du Concept D’entropie Dunod, Paris, 1963.
11. Barsky, E., Efficacy of Separation of Pourable Materials, Thermal Physics of High Temperatures, 2009, no. 6.
12. Lesin, Yu.V., Lukyanova, S.Yu., and Tyulenev, M.A., Mass Transfer of Dispersed Particles in Water Filtration in Macro-Grained Media, Journal of Mining Science, 2010, no. 1, pp. 7881.


BASIS AND DEVELOPMENT OF LOSS REDUCTION METHODS IN PROCESSING GOLD-BEARING CLAYS IN THE KHABAROVSK TERRITORY
T. N. Aleksandrova, A. V. Aleksandrov, N. M. Litvinova, and R. V. Bogomyakov

The article gives theoretical reasons and experimental results on gravitational and flotation concentration of fine gold from highly clayey geological alluvium deposits and placer mining wastes. It is proved that one of the promising ways to intensifying gravitational concentration techniques is the effectual preparation of the material for beneficiation. The authors show that flotation concentration of gold successfully contributes to gravitational concentration toward higher total output.

Gold-bearing placer deposits, preliminary reactant treatment, gravitation, sorption, agglomeration-flotation

REFERENCES
1. Benevolsky, B.I., Golenev, V.B., Bykhovsky, L.Z., et al., Swift Development Placers and Residual Soils in Post-Soviet Time, Min. Resurs. Ross., 2011, no. 5.
2. Sorokin, A.P., Van-Van, E., Glotov, V.D. et al., Atlas osnovnykh zolotorossypnykh mestorozhdenii yuga Dalnego Vostoka i ikh gorno-geologicheskie modeli (Atlas of basic Gold Placers on the South of the Far East and Their Geological-Mining Models), Vladivistok, Blagoveshchensk, Khabarovs: DVO RAN, 2000.
3. Gostishchev, V.V., Litvinova, N.M., and Shokina, L. N. RF patent no. 2233342, Byull. Izobret., 2004, no. 12.
4. Aleksandrova, T.N., Litvinova, N.M., and Bogomyakov, R.V., Extraction of Fine Dispersed Gold from Gold Placers, Gorn. Inform.-Analit. Byull., 2011, no. 2.
5. Pavlov, K.F., Romankov, P.G., and Noskov, A.A., Primery i zadachi po kursy protsessov i apparatov khimicheskoi tekhnologii (Problems and Exercises on Chemical Technology Processes and Apparatuses Course), Moscow: Alyans, 2006.
6. Aleksandrova, T.N., Rasskazov, I.Yu., Litvinova, N.M., and Bogomyakov, R.V., RF patent no. 2388546, Byull. Izobret., 2010, no. 13.
7. Johnson, N.L. and Leone, F., Statistics and Experimental Design in Engineering and the Physical Science, New York: Willey, 1964.
8. Polkin, S.I., Obogashchenie rud i rossypei redkikh i blagorodnykh metallov (Beneficiation of rare and Noble Metal Ore and Placers), Moscow: Nedra, 1987.


NEW METHODS AND INSTRUMENTS IN MINING


EMERGENCY CONTROL OF TECHNOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT AND ELECTRIC MACHINERY ACTIVITY IN COAL MINES
I. V. Breido, A. V. Sichkarenko, and E. S. Kotov

The authors develop standards and design of pre-emergency, emergency and post-emergency control of technological environment and electric machinery activity. The electric machinery operation parameters to be controlled are energy supply of explosion-proof electric machinery, cable integrity and improper access to the machinery; the control objects are switchers and starters within a mine district. The technological environment parameters to be controlled are gas content, including CH4, CO, CO2 and O2, variation in mine air pressure, light, sound, temperature, acceleration or dislocation of central control unit housing. The article presents engineering solutions on subsystems of data reading, processing and storage.

Pre-emergency, emergency and post-emergency control, technological environment, operating regimes, electric machinery, coal mine, data reading, processing and storage subsystems

REFERENCES
1. Babenko, A.G., Mine Information Control Systems, Izv. vuzov, Gorny Zh., 1999, nos. 1112.
2. Pugachev, E.V., Chervyakov, E.V., and Chervyakov, A.E., Model of Automated Mine Air and Gas Monitoring, Prediction and Control System, Naukoemkie tekhnologii razrabotki i ispolzovaniya mineralnykh resursov: sb. nauch. st. (High Technologies of Mineral Mining and Use: Collection of Scientific Papers), V. N. Fryanov (Ed.), Novokuznetsk: SGIU, 2008.
3. Lapin, S.E., Feasibility Study of Automated Mine Air and Gas Control Systems in Mines, Izv. vuzov, Gorny Zh., 2002, no. 1.
4. Breido, I.V., Fedorashko, I.N., and Sichkarenko, A.V., Design Principles of Post-Emergnecy Control Automation Systems in Coal Mines, Transactions of D. A. Kunaev Institute of Mining, 2006, vol. 71.
5. Breido, I.V. and Sichkarenko, A.V., Operation Modes of a Pre- and Post-Emergency Control in Coal Mines, Proc. 21st Int. Conf. Mathematical Methods in Technique and Technology, Saratov, 2008.
6. Fedorashko, I.N., Remote Control of Electrotechnical Complexes, Avtomat. Informat., 2004, nos. 12.
7. Breido, I.V. and Sichkarenko, A.V., Electric Equipment Operation Control Subsystem, Proc. 12th Int. Conf. Science and Education as a Leading Factor in the Kazakhstan-2030 Strategy, Karaganda: KarGTU, 2009.
8. Breido, I.V., Sichkarenko, A.V., and Shpakov, M.A., Data Processing and Storage Subsystem in the Pre- and Post-Emergency Control, Proc. Int. Symp. InformationCommunication Technologies in Industry, Education and Science, Karaganda: KarGTU, 2010.
9. Breido, I.V., Sichkarenko, A.V., and Shpakov, M.A., Algorithm of Data Storage in Pre- and Post Emergency Control, Proc. 12th Int. Conf. Science and Education as a Leading Factor in the Kazakhstan-2030 Strategy, Karaganda: KarGTU, 2011.


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