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JMS, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2016


M. A. Zhuravkov and N. S. Romanova

Belarusian State University,
pr. Nezavisimosti 4, Minsk, 220030 Belarus,
e-mail: Zhuravkov@bsu.by

The article focuses on efficient analysis and test methods to determine nano- and micro-mechanical properties of rocks and crystals. A modification of the classical elastic problems of contact mechanics implemented using the mathematical apparatus of fractional integro-differentiation is proposed. The authors build new models and algorithms aimed to advance the studies into properties and states of geomaterials based on the atomic-force microscopy techniques, and describe testing of the new approaches in calculation of the elastic modulus for hydrocarbons with nano-additives.

Mechanical properties of rocks and crystals, fractional models, calculation of elastic modulus for hydrocarbons with nano-additives

DOI: 10.1134/S1062739116020333 

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V. N. Zakharov, O. N. Malinnikova, V. A. Trofimov, and Yu. A. Filippov

Institute of Integrated Mineral Development, Russian Academy of Science,
Kryukovskii tupik 4, Moscow, 111020 Russia
e-mail: olga_malinnikova@mail.ru

The analytical review covers the key factors that influence permeability of a coalbed under mining-induced alteration of stress state. The authors put forward an analytical relation between coal permeability, stresses and adsorbed gas to define parameters of gas leakage zone parameters and laws of mass transfer. The analytically derived relation is compared with the known model of coal structure and with the experimental results. The proposed model of coalbed permeability allows mechanism of leakage and localization of seepage zones in coal provided that the model parameters are properly selected or found experimentally.

Coalrock mass, permeability, methane, seepage, stress

DOI: 10.1134/S1062739116020345 

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F. K. Nizametdinov, A. A. Nagibin, V. V. Levashov, R. F. Nizametdinov, N. F. Nizametdinov, and A. E. Kasymzhanova

Karaganda State Technical University,
Blv. Mira 56, Karaganda, 100000 Kazakhstan,
e-mail: mdig_kstu@mail.ru

The article offers in situ test methods for cohesion and internal friction angle in rocks and at joints. Technologies and instrumentation for shearing of rock wedges in an open pit mine and for laser scanning and digital imaging of local falls and breaks of inaccessible rock blocks in pitwalls have been developed and approved for constructing a limit equilibrium equation and for calculation of strength properties of rocks and joints. Rock wedges for the tests are prepared using various design drill rigs, the rock wedges are sheared using a 40-t jack placed in a special metal housing with an electric hydraulic pump. Exploration of inaccessible local falls in pitwalls uses electronic tachometers and 3D mine scanner. The tests and approval of the described exploration techniques have been carried out in open pits in Kazakhstan and Kirgizia.

In situ testing, cohesion, rocks and joints, internal friction angle, rock wedge, fall, hydraulic jack, shear, limit equilibrium equation

DOI: 10.1134/S1062739116020357 

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D. V. Yakovlev, S. V. Tsirel, and S. N. Mulev

Rock Mechanics and Surveying Research InstituteVNIMI,
21-ya liniya 6, Lit. A, Saint-Petersburg, 199106 Russia
e-mail: vnimioao@yandex.ru

The scope of the article encompasses features of natural and induced seismicity and the change in frequency plots when natural seismicity turns into natural-and-induced seismicity in mining areas and when induced seismicity becomes natural-and-induced seismicity in mines. It is shown how induced seismicity is connected with the subsidence of overlying strata in minesseismic process propagates together with the subsidence but seismic activity lowers in the time of maximum subsidence and intensifies when subsidence ceases or decelerates. The authors lay emphasis on estimates of seismic activity in mines and give details of an integrated index F procedure tested in mines and adjusted within the 10 year-long period of application.

Seismic event, earthquake, mining operations, frequency plot, subsidence, seismological network, geodynamic monitoring, hazard estimate, forecast

DOI: 10.1134/S1062739116020369 

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A. M. Linkov

Institute for Problems of Mechanical Engineering, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Bolshoy Pr. V.O. 61, Saint Petersburg, 199178 Russia,
e-mail: voknilal@hotmail.com
Saint Petersburg State Politechnic University,
ul. Politechnicheskaya 29, Saint Peterburg, 195251 Russia

The solution to a hydraulic fracture problem for the model of KhristianovichGeertsmade Klerk is obtained on the basis of the modified formulation of the problem, which, in contrast with the conventional approach, employs the particle velocity rather than the flux. This served to complement the system of ordinary differential equations, resulting after spatial discretization, with the speed equation. The complete system is solved by the RungeKutta method for arbitrary initial conditions. The decaying influence of the initial conditions on key characteristics of a fracture (opening and length) at the end of a treatment, is established and numerically analyzed.

Hydraulic fracture, speed equation, asymptotic umbrella, initial conditions, non-Newtonian fluid, opening, fracture length

DOI: 10.1134/S1062739116020394 

1. Wrobel, M. and Mishuris, G., Hydraulic Fracture Revisited: Particle Velocity Based Simulation, Int. J. Engineering Sci., 2015, vol. 94, pp. 2358.
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5. Adachi, J. and Detournay, E., Self-Similar Solution of Plane-Strain Fracture Driven by a Power-Law Fluid, Int. J. Numer. Anal. Meth. Geomech., 2002, vol. 26, pp. 579604.
6. Adachi, J., Siebrits, E., et al., Computer Simulation of Hydraulic Fractures, Int. J. Rock Mech. Mining Sci., 2007, vol. 44, pp. 739757.
7. Detournay, E. and Peirce, A., On the Moving Boundary Conditions for a Hydraulic Fracture, Int. J. Engineering Sci., 2014, vol. 84, pp. 147155.
8. Linkov, A.M., Speed Equation and Applications to Solving Ill-Posed Problems on Hydrofracturing, Dokl. AN, 2011, vol. 439, no. 4, pp. 473475.
9. Kemp, L.F., Study of Nordgrens Equation of Hydraulic Fracturing, SPE Production Engineering, 1990, vol. 5, pp. 311314.
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11. Mishuris, G., Wrobel, M., and Linkov, A., On Modeling Hydraulic Fracture in Proper Variables: Stiffness, Accuracy, Sensitivity, Int. J. Engineering Sci., 2012, Vol. 61, pp. 1023.
12. Linkov, A.M., Analytical Solution of Hydraulic Fracture Problem for Non-Newtonian Fluid, J. Min, Sci., 2013, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 818.
13. Zheltov, Yu.P. and Khristianovich, S.A., Hydraulic Fracturing of an Oil Reservoir, Dokl. AN SSSR. OTN, 1955, no. 5, pp. 341.
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15. Geertsma, J., de Klerk, F., A rapid Method of Predicting Width and Extent of Hydraulically Induced Fractures, J. Pet. Tech., December, 1969, pp. 15711581.
16. Perkins, T.K. and Kern, L.F., Widths of Hydraulic Fractures, J. Pet. Tech., Sept., 1961, pp. 937949.
17. Linkov, A.M., The Particle Velocity, Speed Equation and Universal Asymptotics for the Efficient Modeling of Hydraulic Fractures, Prikl, Matem. Mekhan., 2015, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 7489.
18. Sethian, J.A., Level Set Methods and Fast Marching Methods, Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999.
19. Peirce, A. and Detournay, E., An Implicit Level Set Method for Modeling Hydraulically Driven Fractures, Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engng., 2008, vol. 197, pp. 28582885.
20. Kachanov, L.M., Osnovy mekhaniki razrusheniya (Basic Failure Mechanics), Moscow: Nauka, 1974.
21. Muskhelishvili, N.I., Singulyarnye integralnye uravneniya (Singular Integral Equations), Moscow: Nauka, 1962.
22. Samarsky, A.A. and Gulin, A.V., Chislennye metody (Numerical Methods), Moscow: Nauka, 1989.

V. P. Efimov

Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
e-mail: ensher@sibmail.ru

Based on the strength and crack resistance tests of dolerite and gabbrodiorite samples subjected to bending as a function of loading rate, it is shown that the kinetic constants of strength in Zhurkov model have the same values in the localized and non-localized failure modes. The tests on destruction of an organic glass sample with an edge crack yield the similar results.

Strength, endurance, crack resistance, loading rate, bending, initial energy of failure actuation

DOI: 10.1134/S1062739116020406 

1. Regel, V.R., Slutsker, A.I., and Tomashevskii, E.E., Kineticheskaya priroda prochnosti tverdykh tel (Kinetic Nature of Strength of Solids), Moscow: Nauka, 1974.
2. Cherepanov, G.P., Mekhanika khrupkogo razrusheniya (Brittle Fracture Mechanics), Moscow: Nauka, 1974.
3. Parton, V.Z. and Morozov, E.M., Mekhanika uprugoplasticheskogo razrusheniya (Elastoplastic Failure Mechanics), Moscow: Nauka, 1975.
4. Zhurkov, S.N., Kinetic Concept of Strength of Solids, Vestn. AN SSSR, 1968, no. 3, pp. 4652.
5. Cherepanov, G.P., On Crack Propagation in Solid, Int. J. Solids & Structures, 1969, vol. 5, pp. 863871.
6. Efimov, V.P. and Sher, E.N., Determination of Dynamic Fracture Toughness of Organic Glass, Prikl. Mekh. Tekh. Fiz., 2001, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 217225.
7. Teokaris, P.S., Local Flow at a Crack Tip in Plexiglass, Prikl. Mekh., 1970, no. 2, pp. 159165.
8. Efimov, V.P., Dynamic Calibration of Crack-Resistance Measurements of Brittle Materials by the Cleavage Method, J. Min. Sci., 1990, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 371375.
9. Efimov, V.P., Investigation into the Long-Term Strength of Rocks under Loading with a Constant Rate, J. Min. Sci., 2007, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 600606.
10. Srawley, J.E., Plain Strain Crack Toughness, Razrushenie (Failure), vol. 4, Moscow: Mashinostroenie, 1977.
11. Ouchterlony, F., Fracture Toughness of Rock, Svedefo Report DS, Stockholm, Sweden, 1982.

A. A. Bespalko, Yu. N. Isaev, and L. V. Yavorovich

National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University
pr. Lenina 30, Tomsk, 634050 Russia
e-mail: lusi@tpu.ru

The article gives the results of simulated propagation of electromagnetic signals in stratified and damaged dielectric solid model structures exposed to pulsed acoustic treatment. It is shown that the acousto-electric transformations in such structures result in transition of energy of acoustic pulses to energy of electromagnetic responses in double electric layers. The amplitudefrequency parameters of electromagnetic signals are connected with the characteristics of the determinate acoustic effects and with the charge state of the stratified and damaged structures.

Determinate acoustic signal, electromagnetic signal, stratified structure, charged defect, double electric layer, amplitudefrequency parameters

DOI: 10.1134/S1062739116020418 

1. Zhurkov, S.N., Kinetic Concept of Strength of Solids, Vestn. AN SSSR, 1968, no. 3, pp. 4652.
2. Regel, V.R., Slutsker, A.I., and Tomashevsky, E.E., Kineticheskaya priroda prochnosti tverdykh tel (Kinetic Nature of Strength of Solids), Moscow: Nauka, 1974.
3. Rzhevskii, V.V. and Novik, G.Ya., Osnovy fiziki gornykh porod (Basic Physics of Rocks), Moscow: Nedra, 1984.
4. Bolotin, Yu.I., Maslov, L.A., and Polunin, V.I., Correlating a Crack Size and Acoustic Emission Pulse Amplitude, Defektoskopiya, 1975, no. 4, pp. 119122.
5. Nosov, V.V., Determination Procedure of Informative Parameters of Acoustic Emission Signal, Defektoskopiya, 1998, no. 5, pp. 9198.
6. Lavrov, A.V. and Shkuratnik, V.L., Acoustic Emission in Rocks under Deformation and Failure: Review, Akust. Zh., 2005, vol. 51, Addendum, pp. 618.
7. Landau, L.D and Lifshits, E.M., Elektrodinamika sploshnykh sred (Electrodynamics of Continua), Moscow: Nauka, 1982.
8. Vishnevskaya, N.L. and Zashchinsky, L.A., Increase in Strength of Self-Consistent Electric Field in a Dielectric under Mechanic Impact, Izv. vuzov, Fizika, 1977, no. 5, pp. 7174.
9. Perelman, M.E. and Khatiashvili, N.G., Electromagnetic Emission Generation under Oscillation of Double Electric Layers and Its Activity during Earthquakes, DAN SSSR, 1983, vol. 271, no. 1, pp. 8083.
10. Khatiashvili, N.G. and Perelman, M.E., Electromagnetic Emission Generation under Acoustic Wave Travel across Dielectrics and Some Rocks, DAN SSSR, 1982, vol. 263, no. 4, pp. 7174.
11. Bespalko, A.A., Gold, R.M., Yavorovich, L.V., and Datsko, D.I., Excitation of Electromagnetic Radiation in Laminated Rocks under Acoustic Influence, J. Min. Sci., 2003, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 112117.
12. Koktavy, P., Pavelka, J., and Sikula, J., Characterization of Acoustic and Electromagnetic Emission Sources, Measurement Science and Technology, 2004, no. 15, pp. 973977.
13. Bespalko, A.Ya., Yavorovich, L.V., and Fedotov, P.I., Relationship between Electromagnetic Signal parameters and Electric Characteristics of Rocks under Acoustic and Quasistatic Influence, Izv. TPU, 2005, vol. 308, no. 7, pp. 1823.
14. Bespalko, A.Ya., Yavorovich, L.V., and Surzhikov, A.P., Svyaz petrofizicheskikh svoistv gornykh porod s izmeneniem parametrov elektromagnitnykh signalov pri akusticheskom vozdeistvii (Connection between Petrophysics of Rocks and Change in Parameters of Electromagnetic Signals under Acoustic Effect), Tomsk: TPU, 2011.
15. Bespalko, A.A., Yavorovich, L.V., and Fedotov, P.I., Mechanoelectrical Transformations in Quartz and Quartz-BearingRrocks under Acoustic Action, J. Min. Sci., 2007, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 472476.
16. Golyamin, I.P., Ultrazvuk. Malenkaya entsiklopediya (Ultrasound. Little Encyclopedia), Moscow: Sov. Entsiklop., 1979.
18. Segerlind, L., Applied Finite Element Analysis, John Wiley and Sons, 1984.
19. Hairer, E., Norsett, S.P., and Wanner, G., Solving Ordinary Differential Equations, SpringerVerlag, 1987.
20. Bespalko, A.A., Surzhikov, A.P., and Yavorovich, L.V., Study of Mechanoelectrical Transformation in Rocks under Dynamic Impact, Russian Journal of Non-Ferrous Metals, 2007, no. 1, pp. 911.


V. S. Litvintsev, R. S. Sery, T. S. Banshchikova, and P. P. Sas

Institute of Mining, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Turgeneva 51, Khabarovsk, 680000 Russia
e-mail: litvinzev@igd.khv.ru

It has been found that gold mine waste in the Amur River Area (Priamurye, Russian Far East) contains associated minerals of gold, belonging in the group of useful components. In view of the complicated nature of the mine waste, it is decided on the appraisal and recovery of the associated useful components with the help of rational technologies.

Useful associated minerals, mine waste, primary concentration tailings, beneficiation products, heavy primary concentrate, titano-magnetite, ilmenite, scheelite, zircon, silver, platinum

DOI: 10.1134/S106273911602043X

1. Benevolsky, B.I. and Shevtsov, T.P., Potential of Placer Gold Mining Waste in the Russian Federation, Mineral. Resursy, 2000, no. 1.
2. Shilo, N.A., Uchenie o rossypyakh. Teoriya rossypeobrazuyushchikh rudnykh formatsii i rossypei (Theory of Placers), Vladivostok: Dalnauka, 2002.
3. Trubetskoy, K.N. and Umanets, V.N., Integrated Development of Mining Waste, Gornyi Zh., 1992, no. 1.
4. Trubetskoy, K.N., Chanturia, V.A., Kaplunov, D.R., and Rylnikova, M.V., Kompleksnoe osvoenie mestorozhdenii i glubokaya pererabotka mineralnogo syrya (Integrated Mineral Mining and High-Level Processing), Moscow: Nauka, 2010.
5. Chanturia, V.A., Kozlov, A.P., Matveeva, T.N., and Lavrinenko, A.A., Innovative Technologies and Extraction of Commercial Components from Unconventional and Difficult-to-Process Minerals and Mining-and-Processing Waste, J. Min. Sci., 2012, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 904913.
6. Leshkov, V.G., Razrabotka rossypnykh mestorozhdenii: uchebnik dlya vuzov (Placer Mining: College Textbook), Moscow: MGGU, Gornaya Kniga, 2007.
7. Mamaev, Yu.A., Litvintsev, V.S., and Alekseev, V.S., Processes of Formation of a Pay Layer in Noble Metal Placer Mining Waste, Tikhookean. Geolog., 2012, vol. 31, no. 4.
8. Bykhovsky, L.Z. and Sporykhina, L.V., Mining Waste as a Source of Mineral Supply: The Current State and Issues, Mineral. Resursy Rossii. Ekonom. Upravlen., 2011, no. 4.
9. Flerov, I.B., Placer Mining WasteThe Unvalued Gold Resource of Russia, Mineral. Resursy Rossii. Ekonom. Upravlen., 2004, no. 4.
10. Sorokin, A.P., Van-Van-E, A.P., Glotov, V.D., Belousov, L.V., et al., Atlas osnovnykh zolotorossypnykh mestorozhdenii yuga Dalnego Vostoka i ikh gorno-geologicheskie modeli (Atlas of Basic Gold Placers of Russian Far East and Their Geological and Mining Models), VladivostokBlagoveshchenskKhabarovsk: DVO RAN, 2000.
11. Litvintsev, V.S., Resource Potential of Placer Mining Waste, J. Min. Sci., 2013, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 99105.
12. Litvintsev, V.S., Ponomarchuk, G.P., and Banshchikova, T.S., Gold Content in the Gold Production-Generated Silt-and-Clay Formations in the Far East Area of Russia, J. Min. Sci., 2010, vol. 46, no. 5, 575581.
13. Litvintsev, V.S., Alekseev, V.S., and Pulyaevsky, A.M., Suffusion Processes in the Technology of Formation of Enriched Zones inside Gold Placer Mining Waste Dumps, J. Min. Sci., 2012, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 914919.
14. Litvintsev, V. S. Pulyaevsky, A.M., and Sas, P.P., Optimization of Flushing Sluice Flow in Hydrohoist Gold Washing Machines, J. Min. Sci., 2012, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 10541057.
15. Mamaev, Yu.A., Litvintsev, V.S., Ponomarchuk, G.P., Banshchikova, T.S., Podshivalov, V.S., and Alkov, S.P., Prospects for Recovery of Rebellious Gold from Placer Mining Waste, Obog. Rud, 2005, no. 5, pp. 4245.
16. Litvintsev, V.S., Ponomarchuk, G.P., Banshchikova, T.S., and Shokina, L.N., Effect of Mineral Composition of Sluice Concentrates on Performance of Physicochemical Recovery of Thin Plate and Fine Gold, Izv. Vuzov, Gornyi Zh., 2009, no. 2.
17. Banshchikova, T.S., Litvintsev, V.S., and Shokina, L.N., Problems of Gold Recovery from Sludge Ponds of Placer Mining Waste, GIAB, 2007, vol. 8, no. 12.
18. Litvintsev, V.S., Banshchikova, T.S., Ponomarchuk, G.P., Nechaev, V.V., and Zambrzhitsky, A.I., Features of Material Constitution and Specificity of Mining at Bolotisty Brook Placers in the Khabarovsk Area, Marksheider. Nedropolz., 2011, no. 1.
19. Bykhovsky, L.Z., Sporykhina, L.V., and Tsvetkova, K.V., Mineral Mining Waste in Russia. Issues of Registering and Development, Proc. 14th Con. on Geology of Pacers and Deposits in the Mantle of Waste, Novosibirsk, 2010.
20. Metodicheskoe rukovodstvo po izucheniyu i ekologo-ekonomicheskoi otsenke tekhnogennogo mestorozhdeniya (Instructional Guidelines on the Analysis and Ecological and Economic Appraisal of Mineral Mining Waste, Moscow: GKZ, RF Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, 1994.

A. A. Ordin and E. E. Schwabenland

Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
e-mail: ordin@misd.nsc.ru
Fedorovsky All-Russian Research Institute of Minerals,
Staromonetnyi per. 31, Moscow, 119017 Russia
e-mail: eschwabenland@mail.ru

The article describes the research results on evaluation of rational technological parameters for open pit mining of Oshurkovo apatite deposit using Wirtgen Surface Miners. Basic relations between the surface miner capacity, ground conditions and technological factors are substantiated. The authors have constructed lag models and determined optimal design capacity of the open pit mine.

Open pit mining, non-explosive technology, surface miner, construction lag, optimization, capacity

DOI: 10.1134/S1062739116020441 

1. Schwabenland, E.E., Potential of Surface Miners, Rats. Osv. Nedr, 2014, no. 1, pp. 5460.
2. Ordin, A.A. and Metelkov, A.A., Optimization of the Fully Mechanized Stoping Face Length and Efficiency in a Coal Mine, J. Min. Sci., 2013, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 254264.
3. Tverdov, A.A., Zhura, A.V., and Nikishichev, S.B., Modern Approaches to Determining Boundaries of Open Pit Mining, Ugol, 2009, no. 2, pp. 2124.
4. Anistratov, Yu.I. and Anistratov, K.Yu., Open Pit-and-Underground Mining of Coal, Ugol, 2009, no. 2, pp. 69.
5. Kaputin, Yu.E., Informatsionnye tekhnologii i ekonomicheskaya otsenka gornykh proektov (Information Technologies and Economic Appraisal of Mining Projects), Saint-Petersburg: Nedra, 2008.
6. Elkington, T and Durham, R., Integrate Open Pit Pushback Selection and Production Capacity Optimization, J. Min. Sci., vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 177190.
7. Abdel Sabour, S.A. and Dimitrakopoulos, R., Incorporating Geological and Market Uncertainties and Operation Flexibility into Open Pit Mine Design, J. Min. Sci., 2011, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 191201.
8. Richmod, A., Evaluating Capital Investment Timing with Stochastic Modeling of Time-Dependent Variables in Open Pit Optimization, J. Min. Sci., 2011, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 227234.
9. Godoy, M. and Dimitrakopoulos, R., A Risk Quantification Framework for Strategic Mine Planning: Method and Application, J. Min. Sci., 2011, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 235246.
10. King, B., Optimal Mining Practice in Strategic Planning, J. Min. Sci., 2011, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 247253.
11. Achireko, P.K., Application of Modified Conditional Simulation and Artificial Neural Networks to Open Pit Mining, Canada, Nova Scotia, Halifax, Dalhousie University Daltech, 1998.
12. Meagher, C., Dimitrakopoulos, R., and Avis, D., Optimized Open Pit Mine Design, Pushbacks and the Gap ProblemA Review, J. Min. Sci., 2014, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 508526.
13. Ordin, A.A., Dinamicheskie modeli optimizatsii proektnoi moshchnosti shakhty (Dynamic Models of Mine Production Optimization), Novosibirsk: IGD SO AN SSSR, 1991.
14. Ordin, A.A. and Klishin, V. I. Optimizatsiya tekhnologicheskikh parametrov gornodobyvayushchikh predpriyatii na osnove lagovykh modelei (Lag Modeling-Based Optimization of Mine Process-Dependent Variables), Novosibirsk: Nauka, 2009.
15. Nikolsky, A.A., Ordin, A.A., Kurilko, A.S., Klishin, B.I., and Kulakov, V.N., Bestselikovaya tekhnologiya podzemnoi razrabotki rossypnykh zalezhei Yakutii (Pillarless Underground Mining of Placers in Yakutia), V. N. Oparin (Ed.), Novosibirsk: Nauka, 2014.
16. Ordin, A.A., Nikolsky, A.M., and Golubev, Yu.G., Lag Modeling and Design Capacity Optimization at Operating Diamond Placer Mines Solur and Vostochny, Republic of Sakha, Yakutia, J. Min. Sci., 2012, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 515524.
17. Ordin, A.A. and Vasilev, I.V., Optimized Depth of Transition from Open Pit to Underground Coal Mining, J. Min. Sci., 2014, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 696706.


B. F. Simonov, S. A. Kharitonov, S. V. Brovanov, E. Ya. Bukin, and D. V. Makarov

Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
e-mail: Simonov_BF@mail.ru
Novosibirsk State Technical University,
pr. K. Marksa 20, Novosibirsk, 630073 Russia
e-mail: Kharitonov@corp.nstu.ru
National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University,
pr. Lenina 30, Tomsk, 634050 Russia
e-mail: Kharit1@yandex.ru

The authors analyze feasibility of voltage stabilization for permanent magnet synchronous generators in independent variable-frequency power networks. The method of voltage stabilization is based on series connection of the generator and a semiconductor converter generating wattless power. Basic energy characteristics of the semiconductor converter and synchronous generator are analytically defined, frequency constraints of the proposed method are found, and rational frequency range and overall power of the system are determined.

Synchronous generator, permanent magnets, variable frequency, voltage stabilization, semiconductor converter

DOI: 10.1134/S1062739116020465 

1. http://www.cleantechinvestor.com/portal/fuel-cells/6422-mining-and-energy.html.
2. Kharitonov, S.A., Ryabchitsky, M.V., Vorobeva, S.V., and Kalinin, V.V., Intelligent Power Systems for Small Settlements, Tekhn. Elektrodin., Silov. Elektron. Energoeffekt.: Tematich. Vypusk, Kiev, Inst. Elektrodin., NAN, 2010, pp. 3237.
3. Kharitonov, S., Riabchitsky, M., and Vorobiova S., Smart Grid for the Small Regions, Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Computational Technologies in Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Sibircon, 2010, vol. 2.
4. Kharitonov, S.A. and Ryabchitsky, M.V., New-Generation Self-Sustained Power Plants, Proc. Conf. Enhanced Reliability and Efficiency of Power Stations and Grids, Moscow, 2010, vol. 2.
5. Kharitonov, S.A., Simonov, B.F., Korobkov, D.V., and Makarov, D.V., Voltage Stabilization in Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Generator with Variable Rotation Frequency, J. Min. Sci., 2012, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 675687.
6. Kharitonov, S.A., Korobkov, D.V., Makarov, D.V., Levin, A.V., Yukhnin, M.M., and Konyakhin, S.F., AC Power Generator System with Variable Frequency Generator, Elektron. Elektrooborud. Transport., 2012, nos. 45, pp. 28.
7. Kharitonov, S.A., Korobkov, D.V., Makarov, D.V., Levin, A.V., Konyakhin, S.F., and Yukhnin, M.M., Feasibility of Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Generator Voltage Stabilization in the Power Generation System of and Aircraft, Aviats. Prom., 2012, no. 4, pp. 913.
8. Kharitonov, S.A., Korobkov, D.V., Makarov, D.V., Levin, A.V., Konyakhin, S.F., and Yukhnin, M.M., Determination of Electric Parameters of an Unstable Frequency and Stable Voltage Power Generation System, Aviats. Prom., 2013, no. 1, pp. 310.
9. Kharitonov, S.A., Korobkov, D.V., Makarov, D.V., and Garganeev, A.G., Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Generator Voltage Stabilization at Variable Load, Dokl. TUSUR, 2012, No. 1(25).
10. Kharitonov, S.A., Korobkov, D.V., Makarov, D.V., Levin, A.V., Konyakhin, S.F., and Yukhnin, M.M., Aircraft Power Generation System, Nauch. Vestn. NGTU, 2013, no. 1(50).
11. Makarov, D.V., Kharitonov, S.A., and Makarova, E.A., Generation System of Electric Energy of Variable SpeedVariable FrequencyConstant Amplitude Type, Micro/Nanotechnologies and Electron Devices (EDM), International Conference and Seminar, 2010, pp. 46469.
12. Makarov, D.V., Khlebnikov, A.S., Geist, A.V., and Bachurin, P.A., Generation System with Variable Frequency and Constant Amplitude, Energetics (IYCE), Proc. 3rd Int. Youth Conf., 2011, pp. 19.
13. Herrera, J.I. and Reddoch, T. W. Testing Requirements for Variable Speed Generating Technology for Wind Turbine Applications, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) AP-4590, Project 1996–22, Final Report, May, 1986.
14. Kharitonov, S.A., Elektromagnitnye protsessy v sistemakh generirovaniya elektricheskoi energii dlya avtonomnykh obektov (Electromagnetic Processes in the Power Generation Systems for Self-Sustained Installations), Novosibirsk: NGTU, 2011.
15. Xiuxian, X., Dynamic Power Distribution Management for All Electric Aircraft, Cranfield University, 2011.
16. Simonov, B.F., Kharitonov, S.A., and Mashinsky, V.V., Mechatronic System Synchronous GeneratorThree-Phase Bridge Rectifier for Self-Contained Power Facilities, J. Min. Sci., 2012, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 497505.
17. Ivanov-Smolansky, A.V., Elektricheskie mashiny: uchebnik dlya vuzov (Electrical Machines: College Textbook), Moscow: Energiya, 1980.

B. B. Utegulov, A. B. Utegulov, and A. B. Uakhitova

Seifullin Kazakh AgroTechnical University,
pr. Pobedy 62, Astana, 010000, Kazakhstan
e-mail: utegulov_bolatbek@mail.ru

This article presents the results of experimental studies on a coal mine. According to the results, the current of single phase-to-earth fault in the network under 1000 V has a value less than the current of the residual current device set point. This article presents a method aimed to improving the efficiency of the residual current device used on excavators and drill-rings at mining enterprises. Indeed, the method developed to improve the efficiency of residual current devices under 1000 V is based on setting up a direct current into three-phase mains with a fixed set-point of protection against any phase-to-ground insulation damage, where electric equipment is switched off due to increases of capacitance between a conductor and earth when live-line bare-hand touching of electric equipment occurs.

Mines, shovel, safety cut-out, electrical safety, electrical insulation condition

DOI: 10.1134/S1062739116020477 

1. Abalakov, G.I., Research and Development of Pre-Insulation Monitoring for High Voltage Cables in Mines, Cand. Tech. Sci. Dissertation, Kemerovo, 1999.
.2. Sidorov, A.I., Utegulov, B.B, Utegulov, A.B., Uakhitova, A.B., Procedure for Isolation Parameters under Damage of a Phase in a Mine Network up to 100 V, Tr. KarGTU, 2007, no. 3, pp. 8890.
3. Yagudaev, B.M., Shishkin, N.F., and Nazarov, V., Zashchita ot elektroporazheniya v gornoi promyshlinnosti (Protection against Electrocution in Mining Industry), Moscow: Nedra, 1982.
4. Valinevicius, A., Keras, E., and Balaisis, P., Protection against Electric Shock Using Residual Current Devices in Circuits with Electronic Equipment, Electronics & Electrical Engineering, 2007, vol. 76, pp. 5154.
5. Xiang, Y., Cuk, V., and Cobben., J., Impact of Residual Harmonic Current on Operation of Residual Current Devices, Proc. 10th Int. Conf. on Environment and Electrical Engineering (EEEIC), Rome, 2011.
6. Meijer, C., van der Ven, J.-K., and Ross, R., EMC and Electrical Safety on Board Ships: How EMI Filters Undermine the Protection against Electric Shock, Proc. Int. Symp. on Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC Europe), Brugge, 2013.
7. Kisarimov, R.A., Elektrobezopasnost (Electrical Safety), Moscow: Radiosoft Press, 2013.
8. Manoilov, V.E., Elektrobezopasnost i chelovek (Electrical Safety and Man), Moscow: Nauka, 1991.
9. Gladilin, L.V., Schutsky, V. I. Batsezhev, Yu.G., and Chebotaev, N.I., Elektrobezopasnost v gornodobyvayushchei promyshlennosti (Electrical Safety in Mining Industry), Moscow: Nedra Press, 1977.
10. Pravila bezopasnosti v ugolnykh i slantsevykh shakhtakh (Safety Rules for Coal and Shale Mines), Moscow: Nedra, 1986.
11. Utegulov, B.B., Utegulov, A.B., Uakhitova A. B., Amurgalinov, S.T., and Begentaev, B.M., Issledovanie bezopasnosti proizvodstva rabot v setyakh napryazheniem do 1000 V na ekskavatore EKG-8I (A Safety Study of Works in Networks up to 1000 V on excavator EKG-8I), Vestn. PSU. Series on Energy, 2009, No. 3, pp. 111114.
12. Utegulov, B.B., Utegulov, A.B., Begentaev, M.M., Begentaev, B.M., Uakhitova A. B., Zhakipov, N., and Sadvakasov, T., Method for Determining the Insulation in Asymmetric Networks with Voltage up to 1000 V in Mines, Proc. IASTED Int. Conf. Power and Energy Systems and Applications (PESA), Pittsburgh, USA, 2011.
13. Uakhitova, A.B., Isolation Control Procedure for Asymmetrical Network with Isolated Neutral and Voltage of 620 kV, Izv. Vuzov, Probl. Energetik: KGEU, 2012, nos. 910, pp. 102106.
14. Shutsky, V.I. and Utegulov, B.B., Patent no. SU917127-B, 1982.
15. Utegulov, B.B., Utegulov, A.B., Uakhitova A. B., Amurgalinov, S.T., and Begentaev, B.M., Numerical Values of the Insulation of Electrical Networks up to 1000 V Excavator EKG-8I, Vestn. PSU. Series: Energy, 2009, no. 4, pp. 102107 
16. Edinye pravila bezopasnosti pri razrabotke mestorozhdenii poleznykh iskopaemykh otkrytym sposobom (Common Safety Regulations for Open Pit Mineral Mining), Moscow: Gostekhnadzor, 2003.
17. Lazarev, A.I., Development of Safety Shutdown System for Mine Electric Networks under 1 kV with a Frequency-Controlled Electric Drive, Cand. Tech. Sci. Dissertation, Moscow: MEI, 1998.
18. Utegulov, B.B., Uakhitova, A.B., Utegulov, A.B., and Amurgalinov, S.T., Innovation patent no. 23240, Astana: KazPATENT.
19. Utegulov, B.B., Uakhitova, A.B., Utegulov, A.B., and Amurgalinov, S.T., Method of Safety Shutdown in Electric Network with Isolated Neutral under 1000 V on Excavators, Nauka Tekhn. Kazakhstan., 2010, no. 1, pp. 105107.


V. A. Chanturia, I. Zh. Bunin, G. P. Dvoichenkova, and O. E. Kovalchuk

Institute of Integrated Mineral DevelopmentIPKON, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Kryukovskii tupik 4, Moscow, 111020 Russia
e-mail: dvoigp@mail.ru
ALROSA Research and Geological Exploration Company,
Chernyshevskoe shosse 16, Mirny, 678174 Russia

The article gives new experimental data on spectral characteristics of photoluminescence of natural diamonds extracted from deep horizons of Mir and Internatsionalnaya Pipes, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) depending on composition of basic and additional optically active structural defects in crystals and on temperature during spectrum recording, considering kinetics of luminescence. It is hypothesized on applicability of low-temperature effects to enhance efficiency of photoluminescence separation of diamond crystals.

Diamonds, photoluminescence, spectroscopy, microstructural characteristics, optically active defects, low temperatures

DOI: 10.1134/S1062739116020489 

1. Gorobets, B.S. and Rogozhin, A.A., Spektry lyuminestsentsii mineralov: spravochnik (Mineral Luminescence Spectra: Handbook), Moscow: Vseros. Nauch.-Issled. Inst. Min. Syrya, 2001.
2. Mironov, V.P., X-Ray Luminescence of Natural Diamonds, Proc. 9th Int. Workshop on Luminescence and Laser Physics, Irkutsk: IGU, 2005, pp. 102116.
3. Orlov, Yu.L., Mineralogiya almaza (Diamond Mineralogy), Ed. 2, Moscow: Nauka, 1984.
4. Kvaskov, V.B., Prirodnye almazy Rossii (Natural Diamonds in Russia), Moscow: Polyaron, 1997.
5. Martynovich, E.F., Morozhnikova, L.V., and Novikov, V.V., X-Ray Luminescence of Diamonds, in Lyuminestsentsiya i spektralnyi analiz (Luminescence and Spectral Analysis), vol. 3, Irkutsk: IGU, 1974.
6. Martynovich, E.F., Morozhnikova, L.V., and Parfianovich, I.A., Spectral and Kinetic Characteristics of X-Ray Luminescence Centers in Diamond, Fiz. Tv. Tela, 1973, vol. 15, issue 3, pp. 927929.
7. Martynovich, E.F., Morozhnikova, L.V., Klyuev, Yu.A., and Plotnikova, S.P., X-Ray Luminescence of Different Natural Diamonds, Voprosy teorii i praktiki almaznoi obrabotki (Theoretical and Practical Issues of Diamond Machining), Moscow: Nauch.-Issled. Inst. Mashinostr., 1977, pp. 2838.
8. Mironov, V.P., Super-Luminescence of Diamonds under Pulsed Electronic Excitation, Proc. 9th Int. Workshop on Luminescence and Laser Physics, Irkutsk: IGU, 2005, pp. 94101.
9. Novikov, N.V., Kocherzhinsky, Yu.A., Shulman, L.N., et al., Fizicheskie svoistva almazov: spravochnnik (Physical Properties of Diamonds: Reference Book), Kiev: Nauk. Dumka, 1987.
10. Plotnikova, S.P., Classification and Selection of Natural Diamonds for Electronic Engineering, Almaz v elektronnoi tekhnike (Diamond in Electronic Engineering), V. B. Kvaskov (Ed.), Moscow: Energoatomizdat, 1990, pp. 156170.
11. Vasilev, E.A., Ivanov-Omsky, V.I., Pomazansky B. S., and Bogush, I.N., Nitrogen Addition to Quench Luminescence in N3 Center in Natural Diamond, Zh. Tekh. Fiz., 2044, vol. 30, issue 19, pp. 711.
12. Beskrovanov, V.V., Ontogeniya almaza (Diamond Ontogeny), Novosibirsk: Nauka, 2000.
13. Sobolev, E.V., Nitrogen Centers and Growth of Natural Diamond Crystals, Problemy petrologii zemnoi kory i verkhnei mantii (Petrology Issues of the Earth Crust and Outer Mantle), Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1978, pp. 245255.
14. Khmelnitsky, R.A., Perspectives in Growing of Large-Size Monocrystal Diamond, Uspekhi Fiz. Nauk, 2015, vol. 185, no. 2, pp. 143159.

S. A. Kondratev and D. V. Semyanova

Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
e-mail: kondr@misd.nsc.ru

From the analysis of information on flotation of quartz, barite, hematite and diamond spar using cationic reagents (amines), the authors show deficiency of thermodynamic approach to explain flotation results by one type of adsorption due to ionelectrostatic mechanism. The discussion offers hypothesis that says that at low pH collecting ability of a reagent is connected with hydrophobic attachment of the reagent ions in adsorption layer. In alkaline range of pH, the collecting ability is conditioned by formation and precipitation of ionomolecular associates in the adsorption layer of a mineral. These types of adsorption attach particle surface which is preliminarily made hydrophobic by ionelectrostatic mechanism. These adsorption types are active at bubbleliquid interface and can go to this interface upon rupture of water film between a particle and a bubble. According to the suggested hypothesis, liquid tension in the film becomes nonuniform and a surface force arises and expels kinematic constraint for particlebubble attachment. The analytical review of the collected test data on cationic reagents proves the suggested hypothesis. The causes of breakdown of correlation between surface pressure and collecting ability for initial conditions of flotation are explained.

Flotation, cationic reagent, ionomolecular associates, surface pressure, collecting reagent activity

DOI: 10.1134/S1062739116020490 

1. De Bruyn, P.L., Flotation of Quartz by Cationic Collectors, Min. Eng. Trans. Amer. Inst. Min. Metall. Eng., 1955, vol. 202, pp. 291296.
2. Fuerstenau, D.W., Healy, T.W., and Somasundaran, P., The Role of the Hydrocarbon Chain of Alkyl Collectors in Flotation, Min. Eng. Trans. Amer. Inst. Min. Metall. Eng., 1964, vol. 229, pp. 321325.
3. Gaudin, A.M. and Fuerstenau, D.W., Quartz Flotation with Cationic Collectors, Min. Eng. Trans. Amer. Inst. Min. Metall. Eng., 1955, vol. 202, pp. 958962.
4. Somasundaran, P. and Fuerstenau, D.W., On Incipient Flotation Condition, Min. Eng. Trans. Amer. Inst. Min. Metall. Eng., 1968, vol. 241, pp. 102108.
5. Fuerstenau, D.W. and Pradip, Zeta Potentials in the Flotation of Oxide and Silicate Minerals, Advances in Colloid and Interface, 2005, vol. 114115, pp. 926.
6. Laskowski, J.S., Flotation Thermodynamics: Can We Learn Anything from It? Canad. Metallurg. Quarterly, 2007, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 251258.
7. Fuerstenau, D.W., Correlation of Contact Angles, Adsorption Density, Zeta Potentials, and Flotation Rate, Trans. Amer. Inst. Min. Metall. Eng., 1957, vol. 208, pp. 13651367.
8. Takeda, S. and Usui, S., Adsorption of Dodecylammonium Ion on Quartz in Relation to its Flotation, Colloids and Surfaces, 1987, vol. 23, issues 12, pp. 1528.
9. Gaudin, A.M. and Bloecher, F.W., Concerning the Adsorption of Dodecylamine on Quartz, Min. Eng. Trans. Amer. Inst. Min. Metall. Eng., 1950, vol. 187, pp. 499505.
10. Takeda, S. and Usui, S., Cationic Flotation of Quartz from an Artificial Mixture with Hematite Using Hexylamin, Colloids and Surfaces, 1988, vol. 29, issues 12, pp. 221232.
11. Finch, J.A. and Smith, G.W., Dynamic Surface Tension of Alkaline Dodecylamine Solutions, J. Colloid and Interface Sci., 1973, vol. 45, no. 1., pp. 8191.
12. Somasundaran, P. and Wang Dianzuo, Solution Chemistry, Minerals and Reagents, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2006.
13. Smith, R.W. and Akhtar, S., Cationic Flotation of Oxide and Silicates, in Flotation, M. C. Fuerstenau and A. M. Gaudin (Eds.), Memorial Volume, 1976, vol. 1, New York: AIME Inc., pp. 87116.
14. Somasundaran, P., The Role of Ionomolecular Surfactant Complexes in Flotation, Int. J. Min. Proc., 1976, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 3540.
15. Bleier, A., Goddard, E.D., and Kulkarni, R.D., Adsorption and Critical Flotation Conditions, J. Colloid and Interface Sci., 1977, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 490504.
16. Dolzhenkova, A.N. and Kholodnitsky, B.A., Measurement of Contact Angles in Terms of Flotation, Obogashch. Rud, 1975, no. 5, pp. 4043.
17. Arnold, R., Brownbill, E.E., and Ihle, S.W., Hallimond Tube Flotation of Scheelite and Calcite with Amines, Int. J. Min. Proc., 1978, vol. 5, pp. 143152.
18. Soto, H. and Iwasaki, I., Selective Flotation of Phosphates from Dolomite Using Cationic Collectors. Part I: Effect of Collector and Nonpolar Hydrocarbons, Int. J. Min. Proc., 1986, vol. 16, pp. 316.
19. Kondratev, S.A., Physically Sorbed Collectors in Froth Flotation and their Activity, Part I, J. Min. Sci., 2008, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 118125.
20. Kondratev, S.A., Physically Sorbed Collectors in Froth Flotation and their Activity, Part II, J. Min. Sci., 2009, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 8595.
21. Yoon, R.-H. and Yordan, J.L., Induction Time Measurements for the Quartz-Amine Flotation System, J. Colloid and Interf. Sci., 1991, vol. 141, no. 2, pp. 374383.
22. Stechemesser, H., Geidel, Th., and Weber, K., Expansion of Three-Phase Contact Line after Rupture of Thin Non-Symmetrical Films. Part II: Influence of pH on Expansion Rate at Compressed Electrical Double-Layer in the System Quartz Amine Solution/Air Bubble, Colloid & Polymer Sci., 1980, vol. 258, pp. 12061207.
23. Smit, R.W., Co-Adsorption of Dodecylamine Ion and Molecule on Quartz, Trans. Soc. Min. Engr., AIME, 1963, vol. 226, pp. 427433.
24. Smit, R.W. and Lai, R. W. M., On the Relationship between Contact Angle and Flotation Behavior, Trans. Soc. Min. Engr., AIME, 1966, vol. 235, pp. 413418.
25. Smith, R.W. and Scott, J.L., Mechanisms of Dodecylamine Flotation of Quartz, Min. Proc. Extr. Metall. Review: Int. J., 1990, vol. 7, pp. 8194.
26. Castro, S.H., Vurdela, R.M., and Laskowski, J.S., The Surface Association and Precipitation of Surfactant Species in Alkaline Dodecylamine Hydrochloride Solutions, Colloids and Surfaces, 1986, vol. 21, pp. 87100.
27. Novich, B.E., Flotation Response Prediction from Interfacial Properties, Colloid and Surfaces, 1990, vol. 46, pp. 255269.
28. Pugh, R.J., The Role of the Solution Chemistry of Dodecylamine and Oleic Acid Collectors in the Flotation of Fluorite, Colloid and Surfaces, 1986, vol. 18, pp. 1941.
29. Novich, B.E. and Ring, T.A., A Predictive Model for AlkylamineQuartz Flotation System, Langmuir, 1985, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 701708.
30. Kondratev, S.A. and Ryaboi, V.I., Assessment of Collecting Power of Dithiophosphates and Its Relation to Selectivity of Valuable Component Recovery, Obogashch. Rud, 2015, no. 3, pp. 2530.

A. A. Nikolaev, A. A. Petrova, and B. E. Goryachev

National University of Science and TechnologyMISiS,
Leninskii pr. 4, Moscow, 119049 Russia
e-mail: nikolaevopr@misis.ru

Air bubble and pyrite grain attachment is studied. It is found that mineralization area on an air bubble depends on pulp agitation time, potassium butyl xanthate concentration and pyrite grain size. The authors show the relation between mineralization area of air bubble and weight of mineral load. Using experimental data, it is calculated how many pyrite grains from a narrow size range attach to an air bubble during pulp agitation time, and the weight of these grains is estimated. Physical forces on mineral loading exerted by pyrite grains of 0.1 + 0.071, 0.071 + 0.044 and 0.044 + 0 mm in size at an air bubble at different pulp agitation times, as well as the absolute and specific retention forces are calculated, as well.

Flotation, air bubble mineralization, flotation kinetics, pyrite, potassium xanthate, flotation force, particlebubble attachment

DOI: 10.1134/S1062739116020502 

1. Klassen, V.I. and Mokrousov, V.A., Vvedenie v teoriyu flotatsii (Introduction to Flotation Theory), Ed. 2, Moscow: Gosgortekhizdat, 1959.
2. Bogdanov, O.S., Maksimov, I.I., Podnek, A.K., et al., Teoriya i tekhnologiya flotatsii rud (Theory and Technology of Mineral Ore Flotation), Moscow: Nedra, 1990.
3. Rubinshtein, Yu.B., and Filippov, Yu.A., Kinetika flotatsii (Flotation Kinetics), Moscow: Nauka, 1980.
4. Chanturia, V.A. and Vigdergauz, V.E., Elektrokhimiya sulfidov. Teoriya i praktika (Electrochemistry of Sulfides. Theory and Practice), Moscow: Ruda Metally, 2008.
5. Kondratev, C.A., Mineralization of Bubbles in Flotation, J. Min. Sci., 2004, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 92100.
6. Abramov, A.A., Tekhnologiya obogashcheniya rud tsvetnykh metallov (Nonferrous Metal Ore Processing), Moscow: Nedra, 1983.
7. Chanturia, V.A. and Vigdergauz, V.E., Theory and Practice in Improving the Mineral Wetting Discreteness, Gorny Zh., 2005, no. 4, pp. 5963.
8. Kondratev, S.A., Influence of Main Flotation Parameters on Detachment of Hydrophilic Particle from Bubble, J. Min. Sci., 2005, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 373379.
9. Goryachev, B.E., Naing Lin U, Nikolaev, A.A., Peculiarities of Flotation of Pyrite Originated from Ural CopperZinc Deposit with Potassium Butyl Xanthate and Sodium Dithiophosphate, Tsvet. Met., 2014, no. 6, pp. 1622.
10. Verrelli, D.I., Koh, P. T. L., and Nguyen, A.V., ParticleBubble Interaction and Attachment in Flotation, Chem. Eng. Sci., 2011, vol. 66, issue 23, pp. 59105921.
11. Goryachev, B.E. and Nikolaev, A.A., Interconnection between PhysicalChemical Characteristics of Two-Component Solid Surface Wetting and Floatability of the Same Surface Particles, J. Min. Sci., 2006, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 296303.
12. Samygin, V.D. and Grigorev, P.V., Modeling of Hydrodynamic Effect on Flotation Selectivity. Part I: Air Bubble Diameter and Turbulent Dissipation Energy, J. Min. Sci., 2015, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 157163.
13. Samygin, V.D. and Grigorev, P.V., Modeling of Hydrodynamic Effect on Flotation Selectivity. Part II: Influence of Initial Feed Separation into Large and Small Fractions, J. Min. Sci., 2015, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 374379.
14. Gusev, V.A. and Mordkovich, A.G., Matematika: spravochnye materialy (Mathematics: Reference Book), Moscow: Prosveshchenie, 1990.

V. A. Ignatkina, V. A. Bocharov, and A. A. Kayumov

National University of Science and TechnologyMISiS,
Leninskii pr. 4, Moscow, 119049 Russia
e-mail: woda@mail.ru

The article gives analytical and experimental data on separation of sulfide minerals in bulk concentrates of complex ores. The separation methods for minerals having similar process properties are selected. It is found which factors influence mineral separation efficiency in concentrates of rebellious and complex ore processing. The authors present fresh data on activating effect exerted by cations of copper on floatability of sphalerite, galena, pyrite and pyrrhotine species, as well as on activating effect of copper minerals. It has been studied how species of pyrite and nonferrous metal sulfides influence oxidation, floatability and depression. The selected methods to separate complex ore concentrates provide for multi-stage flotation circuit, with recovery of rebellious species into rough concentrates and products and their separation in different cycles later on. A system mode has been developed and recommended for dosing selective collectors, depressors and modifiers to achieve the best flotation performance.

Minerals, sulfides, species, hydrophilicity, contrast range, technology, sulfhydryl collectors, fractions, genesis

DOI: 10.1134/S1062739116020514 

1. Mitrofanov, S.I., Selektivnaya flotatsiya (Selective Flotation), Moscow: Nedra, 1967.
2. Abramov, A.A., Flotatsionnye metody obogashcheniya (Flotation), Moscow: Gornaya Kniga, vol. IV, 2008.
3. Avdokhin, V.M. and Abramov, A.A., Okislenie sulfidnykh mineralov v protsessakh obogashcheniya (Oxidation of Sulfide Minerals in Dressing), Moscow: Nedra, 1989.
4. Bocharov, V.A. and Ignatkina, V.A., Tekhnologiya obogashcheniya poleznykh iskopaemykh (Mineral Processing), Moscow: Ruda Metally, 2007, vol. 1.
5. Ignatkina, V.A. and Bocharov, V.A., Specific Features of Flotation of Various Copper Sulfides and Sphalerite of Pyritic Ores, Gorny Zh., 2014, no. 12, pp. 7579.
6. Bocharov, V.A., Ignatkina, V.A., and Kayumov, A.A., Fahl Ore Flotation, J. Min. Sci., 2015, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 573579.
7. Bocharov, V.A. and Ryskin, M.Ya., Tekhnologiya konditsionirovaniya i selektivnoi flotatsii rud tsvetnykh metallov (Process for Conditioning and Selective Flotation of Nonferrous Metal Ores), Moscow: Nedra, 1993.
8. Glembotsky, V.A. and Dmitrieva, G.M., Vliyanie genezisa mineralov na ikh flotatsionnye svoistva (Influence of Mineral Genesis on Their Flotation Properties), Moscow: Nauka, 1965.
9. Golikov, A.A., Interaction of Collecting Agents at Sulfide Surface, Tsv. Met., 1990, no. 11, pp. 1115.
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11. Bogdanov, O.S., Maksimov, I.S., Podnek, A.K., et al., Teoriya i tekhnologiya flotatsii rud (Theory and Technology of Mineral Ore Flotation), Moscow: Nedra, 1990.
12. Vershinin, E.A. and Filimonov, V.I., Coaction of Sodium Sulfide and Sodium Sulfite in Flotation of Chalcopyrite, Sphalerite, and Pyrite, Tsv. Metallurg., 1968, no. 11, pp. 1518.
13. Ignatkina, V.A. and Bocharov, V.A., Selection of Sulfhydryl Collecting Agents in Flotation of Nonferrous Sulfides from Rebellious Ores, Izv. vuzov. Tsv. Metallurg., 2015, no. 1, pp. 310.
14. Ignatkina, V.A., Bocharov, V.A., and Dyachkov, F.G., Collecting Properties of Diisobutyl Dithiophosphinate in Sulfide Minerals Flotation from Sulfide Ores, J. Min. Sci., 2013, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 138146.
15. Nesterova, L.I. and Fedorova, M.N., Material Constitution Factors of Uchaly Ores, Trudy Uralmekhanobr, 1958, issue 3, pp. 4549.
16. Bocharov, V.A. and Ignatkina, V.A., Investigation into the Effects of Genetic Peculiarities of Pyrites and their Structural Associates on Contrastive and Technological Properties, Tsv. Met., 2014, no. 8, pp. 2027.
17. Kabachnik, M.I., Khimiya fosfororganicheskikh soedinenii (Chemistry of Phosphorus Organic Compounds), vol. l, Moscow: Nauka, 2008.
18. Lui, G., Zhong, ., and Dai, . Investigation of the Selective of Ethoxycarbamites during the Flotation of Copper Sulfides, Mineral and Metallurgical Process., 2008, vol. 25, no 1, pp. 1924.
19. Bocharov, V.A. and Ignatkina, V.A., Role of Iron and Its Content in Processing of Sulfide Nonferrous and Noble Metals, Izv. vuzov. Tsv. Metallurg., 2007, no. 5, pp. 412.
20. Konev, V.A., Flotatsiya sulfidov (Sulfide Flotation), Moscow: Nedra, 1985.
21. Eropkin, Yu.I., Obogashchenie orudenennykh peschanikov (Beneficiation of Mineralized Sandstones), Saint Petersburg: Nauka, 1999.
22. Kozlova, I.P., Peculiarities of Complex Ore Processing at Rubtsovsk Ore Preparation Plant, Proc. Conf. Development of Hi-Tech Processes at Mining-and-Metallurgical Integrated Works, Ekaterinburg, 2013, pp. 3537.
23. Kakovsky, I.A. and Komkov, V.D., Investigation into Flotation Properties of Dithiophosphates, Izv. vuzov. Gorny Zh., 1970, no. 11, pp. 181186.
24. Ignatkina, V.A. and Bocharov, V.A., Nonferrous Sulfide Flotation Flowsheets Based on Combinations of Selective Collectors, Gorny Zh., 2010, no. 2, pp. 5864.
25. Bakinov, K.G., Processes for Separation of LeadCopper Concentrates, Obogashch. Rud, 1962, no. 5, pp. 1622.
26. Grosman, L.I. and Hadzhiev, P.G., Suppression of Sulfide Minerals by Products of ZnSO4Na2CO3 Interaction, Izv. vuzov. Tsv. Metallurg., 1966, no. 3, pp. 2532.
27. Ignatkina, V.A., Bocharov, V.A., Milovich F. O., et al., New Approaches to Studies of the Mechanism for Sulfhydryl Collectors in Sulfide Flotation, Moscow: MISiS, Proc. CIS Mineral Processing Engineers, Moscow: MISiS, 2015, vol. II, pp. 475482.
28. Filimonov, V.I., Vershinin, E.A., and Bocharov, V.A., On Effect of Sodium Sulfite in Oxidation Reactions in Cyanide-Free Sulfide Mineral Flotation, Tsv. Met., 1968, no. 7, pp. 1517.
29. Brion, D., Photoelectron Spectroscopic Study of the Surface Degradation of Pyrite (FeS2), Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), Sphalerite (ZnS) and Galena (PbS) in Air and Water, Appl. Surface Sci., 1980, vol. 5, pp. 133.
30. Abramov, A.A., Tekhnologiya pererabotki i obogashcheniya rud tsvetnykh metallov (Nonferrous Metal Ore Processing), Moscow: MGGU, 2005, vol. III, book 1; 2006, vol. III, book 2.

P. L. Paleev, P. A. Gulyashinov, and A. N. Gulyashinov

Baikal Institute of Nature Management, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Sakhyanovoi 6, Ulan-Ude, 670047 Russia
e-mail: palpavel@mail.ru

The article describes theoretical and experimental data on dearsenation of gold-containing scorodite ore in water vapor. It is shown that roasting of scorodite with pyrite in super-heated vapor enables complete removal of arsenic and sulfur in the form of sulfides from the original material and exposes noble metals.

Gold-containing scorodite, pyrite, roasting in super-heated vapor, thermodynamic modeling

DOI: 10.1134/S1062739116020526 

1. Kopylov, N.I. and Kaminsky, Yu.D., Arsenic Problem in Mineral Processing, Khim. Int. Ust. Razv., 1997, vol. 5, pp. 221258.
2. Isabaev, S.M., Sulphidation of Arsenic-Containing Compounds and Development of Processes for Arsenic Removal from Concentrates and Intermediate Products of Nonferrous Metallurgy, Dr. Tech. Sci. Thesis, Irkutsk, 1991.
3. Chanturia, V.A., Fedorov, A.A., and Matveeva, T.N., Assessment of Processing Features of Different-Origin Gold-Bearing Pyrites and Arsenopyrites, Tsv. Met., 2000, no. 8, pp. 912.
4. Isabaev, S.M., Kuzgibekova, Kh., Physicochemical Fundamentals of Heterogeneous Interaction in FeAsS, CAsS, NiAsS, CuAsS under Nonequilibrium Sulphidation Conditions, Tsv. Met., 2002, no. 4, pp. 3336.
5. Sinyarev, G.B., Vatolin, N.A., Trusov, B.G., and Moiseev, G.L., Primenenie EVM dlya termodinamicheskikh raschetov metallurgicheskikh protsessov (Computing Machines for Thermodynamic Calculations of Metallurgical Processes), Moscow: Nauka, 1982.
6. Metodicheskie osnovy issledovaniya khimicheskogo sostava gornykh porod, rud i mineralov (Methodological Fundamentals to Study Chemical Composition of Rocks and Minerals), Moscow: Nedra, 1979.


S. V. Suknev

Chersky Institute of Mining of the North, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
pr. Lenina 43, Yakutsk, 677980 Russia
e-mail: suknyov@igds.ysn.ru

The author performs the comparative analysis of the international standards on determination of elastic properties of rocks from uniaxial compression tests, with benefits and shortcomings of the standards presented. The measurement data on lateral and transverse strains obtained in rocks and model metal samples under compression using different type extensometers are reported. The scope of the analysis embraces applicability of extensometers to the determination of elasticity modulus and Poissons ratio in rocks under variation in temperature. Examples of estimating elastic properties in thawed and frozen rocks are given in terms of enclosing rocks at Botuobinskaya diamond pipe.

Rocks, compression, elasticity modulus, Poissons ratio, temperature

DOI: 10.1134/S1062739116020538 

1. GOST (State Standard) 28985–91: Rocks. Test Method for Deformation Characteristics under Uniaxial Compression, 2004.
2. Martin, C.D. and Chandler, N.A., The Progressive Fracture of Lac du Bonnet Granite, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. & Geomech. Abstr., 1994, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 643659.
3. Hakala, M., Kuula, H., and Hudson, J.A., Estimating the Transversely Isotropic Elastic Intact Rock Properties for In Situ Stress Measurement Data Reduction: A Case Study of the Olkiluoto Mica Gneiss, Finland, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., 2007, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 1446.
4. Eberhardt, E., Stead, D., Stimpson, B., and Read, R.S., Identifying Crack Initiation and Propagation Thresholds in Brittle Rock, Can. Geotech. J., 1998, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 222233.
5. ASTM D7012–10: Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength and Elastic Moduli of Intact Rock Core Specimens under Varying States of Stress and Temperatures, West Conshohocken: ASTM International, 2010.
6. DIN EN 14580:2005–07: Prufverfahren fur NatursteinBestimmung des statischen Elastizitatsmoduls, Berlin: Deutsches Institut fur Normung e.V., 2005.
7. Suknev, S.V., Application of Circumferencial and Diametral Strain Sensors to Determination of Poissons Ratio under Compression, GIAB, 2012, no. 12.
8. GOST (State Standard) R 1.0–2004: Standardization in Russian Federation. Basic Provisions, 2007.
9. GOST (State Standard) R 1.0–2004: Standardization in Russian Federation. Corporate Standards. Basic Provisions, 2007.
10. GOST (State Standard) R 1.5–2004: Standardization in Russian Federation. National Standards of the Russian Federation: Regulations for Definition, Presentation, Style and Indication, 2007.
11. GOST (State Standard) 21153.2–84: Rocks. Test Method for Ultimate Uniaxial Compressive Strength, 2001.

S. A. Bornyakov and D. V. Salko

Institute of the Earth Crust, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Lermontova 128, Irkutsk, 664033 Russia
e-mail: bornyak@crust.irk.ru
Irkutsk State University,
ul. Lenina 3, Irkutsk, 664001 Russia

The designed automated system for pitwall deformation monitoring consists of an independent data recorder, strain sensors, AD converters, and front-end and back-end controls. Data are accumulated on server in on-line mode via cellular modem. The self-contained tools are supplied from accumulators recharged by solar batteries, which expands operational life of the system. The system has been trailed in an open pit mine at Nyurbinskaya kimberlite pipe in deformation monitoring of faults in the eastern pitwall and estimation of its stability.

Pitwall, block-and-fault structure, deformation monitoring, instrumental system, recorder sensor, control program

DOI: 10.1134/S1062739116020550 

1. http://www.reutechmining.com/ru/products/products-overview.
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8. Salko, D.V. and Bornyakov, S.A., Automatic Monitoring Systems for Geophysical Characteristics on Geodynamic Testing Grounds, Pribory, 2014, no. 6.
9. Bornyakov, S.A. and Vstovsky, S.G., Initial Experience Gained in Seismic-and-Deformation Monitoring in the Baikal Rift Zone (South Baikal Earthquake on August 29, 2008), Dokl. Akad Nauk, 2010, vol. 431, no. 4.
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11. Ma Jin, Guo Yanshuang, and Sherman, S.I., Accelerated Synergism along a Fault: A Possible indicator for an Impending Major Earthquake, Geodynamics & Tectonophysics, 2014, no. 5(2), pp. 387399.


G. V. Kalabin, V. I. Gorny, and S. G. Kritsuk

Institute of Integrated Mineral DevelopmentIPKON, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Kryukovskii tupik 4, Moscow, 111020 Russia
e-mail: kalabin.g@gmail.com
Ecological Safety Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Korpusnaya 18, Saint-Petersburg, 197110 Russia
e-mail: v.i.gornyy@mail.ru

The authors prove relevance of digital space data to be used for regional and local operational quantitative estimation of nature in the area of mineral mining and processing. The research findings are analyzed in terms of environmental appraisal made for the area of an open pit mine at Gusevogorskoe deposit of titano-magnetite ore with vanadium admixture (Sverdlovsk Region, Russia).

Mining and processing plants, vegetative cover condition, earth remote sensing methods, normalized difference vegetation index

DOI: 10.1134/S1062739116020562 

1. Kalabin, G.V., Quantitative Assessment Procedure for Environment Conditions in the Mining and Processing Industry Areas, J. Min. Sci., 2012, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 382389.
2. Kalabin, G.V., Moiseenko, T.I., Gorny, V.I., Kritsuk, S.G., and Soromotin, A.V., Satellite Monitoring of Natural Environment at Olimpiada Gold Open-Cut Mine, J. Min. Sci., 2013, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 160166.
3. Kalabin, G.V., Gorny, V.I., and Kritsuk, S.G., Satellite Monitoring of Vegetation Mantle Response to the Sorsk CopperMolybdenum Mine Impact, J. Min. Sci., 2014, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 155162.
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5. Pavlov, A.I., Generalized Iron Ore Production Output in Russia in 2010, Tekhniko-ekonomicheskie pokazateli gornykh predpriyatii za 19902010 gg. (Performance of Mines in 19902010), Ekaterinburg: UrO RAN, 2011.
6. Prirodnye resursy i ekologiya Rossii. Federalnyi atlas (Natural Resources and Ecology of Russia. Federal Atlas), Moscow, 2002.
7. Gosudarstvennyi doklad O sostoyanii okruzhayushchei sredy Sverdlovskoi oblasti v 2013 godu (Governmental Report on the State of the Environment in the Sverdlovsk Region in 2013), Ekaterinburg, 2012.
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11. http://terranorte.iki.rssi.ru/onlinegis/html/viewer.php?q=1.

M. B. Bubnova and Yu. A. Ozaryan

Institute of Mining, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Turgeneva 51, Khabarovsk, 680000 Russia
e-mail: ozaryanigd@gmail.com

The article gives new information on integrated assessment of the environmental impact of mining in the south of Russian Far East. The assessment is based on: Earth remote sensing data; normalized difference vegetation index for naturetechnology systems; combination of the calculated vegetation index and digital relief model to implement individual estimation of the induced impact and natural effects; joint analysis of the induced impact based on satellite monitoring and field survey data; computation of ecological-and-economic damage.

Nature-and-technology systems, satellite monitoring, ecological damage, integrated assessment

DOI: 10.1134/S1062739116020574 

1. Trubetskoy, K.N., Galchenko, Yu.P., Burtsev, L.I., Ekologicheskie problemy osvoeniya nedr pri ustoichivom razvitii prirody i obshchestva (Ecology Problems of Mineral Resource Development under Well-Established Nature and Society Evolution), Moscow: Nauchtekhlitizdat, 2003.
2. Pevzner, M.E. and Kostovetsky, V.P., Ekologiya gornogo proizvodstva (Mineral Mining and Production Ecology), Moscow: Nedra, 1990.
3. Saksin, B.G., Prognoznaya otsenka regionalnogo geokhimicheskogo vozdeistviya na okruzhayushchuyu prirodnuyu sredu dobyvayushchikh predpriyatii tsvetnoi metallurgii v usloviyakh vostoka Rossii (Predictive Estimate of Regional Geochemical Impact of Nonferrous Metal Ore Mines on Environment in Eastern Regions of the Russian Federation), Khabarovsk: IGD DVO RAN, 2012.
4. Bubnova, M.B. and Ozaryan, Yu.A., Geoecological Valuation of Natural-and-Mine Engineering Systems on the South of the Far East, J. Min. Sci., 2012, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 941946.
5. Kalabin, G.V., Moiseenko, T.I., Gorny, V.I., Kritsuk, S.G., and Soromotin, A.V., Satellite Monitoring of Natural Environment at Olimpiada Gold Open-Cut Mine, J. Min. Sci., 2013, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 160166.
6. Oparin, V.N., Potapov, V.P., Giniyatullina, O.L., et al., Evaluation of Dust Pollution of Air in Kuzbass Coal Mining Areas in Winter by Data of Remote Earth Sensing, J. Min. Sci., 2014, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 549558.
7. Sandlersky, R.B., Evaluation of Potential Biological Productivity of Southern Taiga Terrains by Using Remote Sounding Evidence, Proc. Int. Conf. Landscape Design: General Provisions, Methodology, Technology, Moscow: MGU, 2006, pp. 217221.
8. Tuckera, C.J., Pinzona, J.E., Browna, M.E., Slaybacka, D.A., Paka, E.W., Mahoneya, R., Vermotea, E.F., and Saleousa, N.E., An Extended AVHRR 8?km NDVI Dataset Compatible with MODIS and SPOT Vegetation NDVI Data, Int. J. Rem. Sensing, 2005, vol. 26, issue 20, pp. 44854498.
9. Morin, V.A., Bubnova, M.B., and Morina, O.M., Ecological Role of Pioneer Flora in Industrially Disturbed Amur Basin Lands, GIAB, 2009, no. 5, pp. 253263.
10. Mamaev, Yu. A., Krupskaya, L.T., Saksin, B.G., et al., EcologicalBiogeochemical Assessment of Mining Technogenesis of FarEast Southern Areas, Gornyi Zh., 2005, no. 12, pp. 145147.
11. Pashkevich, M.A., Geokhimiya tekhnogeneza sredy (Geochemistry of Technogenesis of the Medium: Textbook), Saint Petersburg: SPGU, 2004.
12. Rastanina, N.K. and Krupskaya, L.T., Role of Ecological Factors in People Health Examination in Mining Residential Areas in the Far East South, Ekol. Promyshl. Rossii, 2008, no. 12, pp. 5657.
13. Perspektivy osvoeniya ugolnykh mestorozhdenii Dalnego Vostoka (Perspectives of Coal Deposit Development in the Far East), vol. 1, Vladivostok: Dalnevost. Univer., 2004.
14. Polokhin, O.V., Specific Features of Soil and Flora Cover in Technogenically Disturbed Lands in the Primorski Krai, Sovr. Pr. Nauki Obraz., 2013, no. 6, http:// www.science-education.ru/113–10936.
15. Domarenko, V.A., Ekologoekonomicheskaya otsenka mestorozhdenii (tverdye poleznye iskopaemye) (Ecological-Economic Assessment of Deposits (Hard Minerals): textbook), Tomsk: TPU, 2007.
16. Metodika opredeleniya ekonomicheskoi effektivnosti rekultivatsii narushennykh zemel (Procedure to Estimate Economic Efficiency of Disturbed Land Reclamation), Moscow: Inst. Plan. Normat., 1986.
17. Aleshichev, A.N., Significance of Soils in Recultivation of Raichikhinsky Brown Coal Dumps, AGRO, 2008, nos. 46, pp. 7980.

N. N. Melnikov, S. P. Mesyats, and E. Yu. Volkova

Mining Institute, Kola Science Center, Russian Academy of Science,
ul. Fersmana 24, Apatity, 184209 Russia
e-mail: mesyats@goi.kolasc.net.ru

The methodological approach to rehabilitation of disturbed lands in mining areas in accordance with the evolutionary program of soil formation on mineral substrates by generating biologically active medium has been substantiated and approved based on the data of many-years monitoring at various objects.

Disturbed land, artificial plant formation, bioproductivity, biogenichumusaccumulation horizon, ecosystem function restoration, area function

DOI: 10.1134/S1062739116020586 

1. Kovda, V.A., Rol i funktsii pochvennogo pokrova v biosfere Zemli (Role and Functions of Soil Cover in the Earths Biosphere), Pushchino: ONTI NTsBI AN SSSR, 1985.
2. Mesyats, S.P., Restoration of Soil and Environmental Functions of LandsConceptual Model of Adaptive Technologies for Disturbed Land Reclamation, Proc. Int. Conf. Anthropogenic and Modern Ecology: Nature and Man, Saint-Petersburg: Gumanistika, 2004.
3. Mesyats, S.P. and Melnikov, N.N., A Concept and Engineering Solutions on Mining-Disturbed Land Recovery, Formirovanie osnov sovremennoi strategii prirodopolzovaniya v Evro-Arkticheskom regione (Basics of Nature Management Strategy for EuropeArctic Region), Apatity: KNTs RAN, 2005.
4. Kachinsky, N.A., Fizika pochvy (Soil Physics), Moscow: Vyssh. Shk., 1965.
5. Milanovsky, E.Yu. and Shein, E.V., Functions of Amphiphilic Components of Humic Substances in HumusStructure Formation and Genesis of Soil, Pochvoved., 2002, no. 10.
6. Mesyats, S.P., Rumyantseva, N.S., Volkova, E.Yu., and Chizhikova, N.P., Analysis of Structure and Mineralogy of Young Soil Forming at Tailings Dumps as a Result of Seeded Plant Formation, Proc. 8th Conf. Development of the North and Nature Recovery Challenges, Syktyvkar, 2011.
7. Bakhnov, V.K., Gamzikov, G.P., Ilin, V.B., et al., Metodologicheskie i metodicheskie aspekty pochvovedeniya (Methodology and Procedures of Soil Science), Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1988.
8. Lehninger, A., BiochemistryThe Molecular Basis of Cell Structure and Functions, Worth, 1972.

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