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JMS, Vol. 52, No. 6, 2016


GEOMECHANICS


HYDRAULIC FRACTURING FOR IN SITU STRESS MEASUREMENT
S. V. Serdyukov, M. V. Kurlenya, and A. V. Patutin

Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
e-mail: ss3032@yandex.ru

It is experimentally found that shut-in pressure conforms with the fracture initiation pressure if the fracture surfaces are uniformly loaded by fluid. The article shows that equaling minimal stress and shut-in pressure in local fractures results in overestimates. The error depends on the length of a hydrofracturing facility and is high under low compression in rocks (510 MPa). The authors put forward decisions aimed at improvement of accuracy and enhancement of information content of hydraulic fracturing in the in situ stress measurement.

Rock mass, stress state, borehole investigations, hydraulic fracturing, fracture, stress measurement, shut-in pressure, hydraulic fracturing facility, measurement error

DOI: 10.1134/S1062739116061563 

REFERENCES
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EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH INTO THERMOMECHANICAL EFFECTS AT LINEAR AND NONLINEAR DEFORMATION STAGES IN ROCK SALT SPECIMENS UNDER CYCLIC LOADING
V. I. Sheinin, D. I. Blokhin, I. B. Maksimovich, and E. P. Sarana

Gersevanov Research Institute of Bases and Underground Structures,
2-ya Institutskaya ul. 6, Moscow, 109428 Russia
e-mail: geo-mech@yandex.ru
National University of Science and TechnologyMISIS,
Leningradskii pr. 4, Moscow, 119049 Russia
e-mail: dblokhin@yandex.ru

The authors discuss capabilities of taking information on mechanical processes in geomaterials under post-limiting elastic deformation based on variation in IR radiation intensity. Experimental results on recording of heat emission from specimens of rock salt exposed to cyclic loading by uniaxial compression are reported. It is concluded that thermomechanical effects are useful in recording of onset of failure activation in geomaterials under cyclic loading.

Geomaterials, rock salt, cyclic loading, axial stress, axial strain, infrared radiation, geomechanical monitoring

DOI: 10.1134/S1062739116061575 

REFERENCES
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INFLUENCE OF INJECTION OF THERMOGEL ON OIL DISPLACEMENT BY WATERFLOODING
N. K. Korsakova, V. I. Penkovsky, L. K. Altunina and V. A. Kuvshinov

Lavrentiev Institute of Hydrodynamics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
pr. Akademika Lavrentieva 15, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
e-mail: kors@hydro.nsc.ru
Institute of Chemistry of Oil, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Akademicheskii pr. 4, Tomsk, 634021 Russia
e-mail: alk@ipc.tsc.ru

The article describes physical simulation and mathematical modeling of influence exerted by injection of thermogel on configuration of water flow in water flood recovery. Recovery of oil, especially viscous oil, with such method features unstable displacement front and formation of water fingers that eventually turn into a net of water channels directed toward the lowest flow coefficient between wells. Most of oil remains immobile and is in dynamic equilibrium with the displacement water flow. The authors show that injection of thermogel in a reservoir between wells expands displacement front at the late stage of mining, which allows enhancement of oil recovery factor.

Enhanced oil recovery, viscous oil, capillary attraction shutting-off, gels, waterflooding

DOI: 10.1134/S1062739116061587 

REFERENCES
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LASER STRAINMETER IN INTEGRATED GEODYNAMIC MONITORING WITHIN STRELTSOV ORE FIELD
I. Yu. Rasskazov, G. I. Dolgikh, V. A. Petrov, V. A. Lugovoi, S. G. Dolgikhb, B. G. Saksina, and D. I. Tsoia

Institute of Mining, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Turgeneva 51, Khabarovsk, 680000 Russia
e-mail: adm@igd.khv.ru
Ilichev Pacific Oceanological Institute, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Baltiiskaya 43, Vladivostok, 690043 Russia
Institute of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy and Geochemistry,
Russian Academy of Sciences,
per. Staromonetnyi 35, Moscow, 119017 Russia

The authors describe operation of a laser strainmeter within the integrated geodynamic monitoring system in Streltsov Ore Field. Capabilities and design features of the strainmeter are discussed. The article demonstrates feasibility of highly accurate measurements of deformation field parameters in an operating mine. Specificity of natural oscillations of the Earth is defined, and deformation of rock mass depending on energy of a destruction source is evaluated.

Induced seismicity, geomechanical monitoring, laser strainmeter, stress state, strain field

DOI: 10.1134/S1062739116061599 

REFERENCES
1. Ishchukova, L.P., Uranovye mestorozhdeniya Streltsovskogo rudnogo polya v Zabaikale (Uranium Deposits in Streltsov Ore Filed in Transbaikalia), Irkutsk: Glazovskaya, 2007.
2. Rasskazov, I.Yu., Saksin, B.G., Petrov, V.A., and Prosekin, B.A., Geomechanics and Seismicity of the Antei Deposit Rock Mass, J. Min. Sci., 2012, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 405412.
3. Rasskazov, I.Yu., Saksin, B.G., Petrov, V.A., Shevchenk, B.F., Usikov, V.I., and Gilmanova, G.Z., Current Stress State of the Upper Crust of the Amur Lithospheric Plate, Fiz. Zemli, 2014, no. 3, pp. 104113.
4. Bortnikov, N.S., Petrov, V.A., Veselovsky, A.V., Kuzmina, D.A., and Leksin, A.B., GeoInformatin System (GIS)in the Transbaikalia Sector of the MongoliaOkhotsk Mobile Belt, Rudy Metally, 2012, no. 3, pp. 1627.
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ROCK FAILURE


WAVE PREFRACTURING OF SOLID ROCKS UNDER BLASTING
A. N. Kochanov and V. N. Odintsev

Institute of Integrated Mineral DevelopmentIPKON, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Kryukovskii tupik 4, Moscow, 111020 Russia
e-mail: Odin-VN@yandex.ru

Considering features of wave prefracturing (microfailure) of rocks under blasting, the authors put forward a new investigation approach with the use of relations of dynamic elastic stress distribution in rocks and theory of cracks. The obtained relation to estimate prefracturing zone size in relatively solid rocks under confined explosion involves pressure of gases in explosion chamber, rock pressure, crack resistance of rocks, characteristic dimension of natural jointing (presence of defects) and deformation characteristics of rocks. It is shown that dimension of prefracturing zone in rocks depends both on natural and production factors and can differ by a few times.

Rock, confined explosion, elastic wave, tension, microcracks, wave prefracturing, detonation velocity

DOI: 10.1134/S1062739116061613 

REFERENCES
1. Trubetskoy, K.N. (Ed.), Osvoenie i sokhranenie nedr Zemli (Development and Preservation of the Earths Interior), Moscow: AGN, 1997.
2. Viktorov, S.D., Galchenko, Yu.P., Zakalinsky V. M., and Rubtsov, S.K., Razrushenie gornykh porod sblizhennymi zaryadami (Rock Destruction by Explosion of Contiguous Charges), Moscow: Nauchtekhlitizdat, 2006.
3. Viktorov, S.D., Eremenko, A.A., and Mashukov, I.V., Tekhnologiya krupnomasshtabnoi vzryvnoi otboiki na udaroopasnykh rudnykh mestorozhdeniyakh Sibiri (Large-Scale Blasting Technology for Rockburst-Hazardous Ore Deposits in Siberia), Novosibirsk: Nauka, 2005.
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INTENSIFICATION OF NONLINEARITY BY DISPERSED EVENTS IN MEDIA WITH STRUCTURE AND GENERATION OF VARIOUS DOMINANT FREQUENCIES IN P- AND S-WAVES
B. P. Sibiryakov and E. B. Sibiryakov

Trofimuk Institute of Oil and Gas Geology and Geophysics,
Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
e-mail: sibiryakovbp@ipgg.sbras.ru
Novosibirsk State University,
ul. Pirogova 1, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
e-mail: sibiryakoveb@ipgg.sbras.ru

A model of a continuum with a structure described by infinite order equations of motion is proposed. In case that a wave is very long as compared with the size of the structure, equations are reduced to the fourth-order equations. A closed equation of motion, including nonlinear, dispersed and wave members, is derived. It is shown that solutions in the form of soliton waves exist only in media where wave velocity grows with pressure. In the media, where soliton waves do not exist, quasi-stationary solutions with multiple frequencies prevail. It is found that the nonlinear effect of multiple frequencies is unexpectedly high even for small deformation as dispersion violently intensifies nonlinear events. Moreover, in the domain of small deformation, there exist solutions for longitudinal and transversal waves with the same length and different frequencies. The solutions for the same length waves with different frequencies most often occur in seismology and seismic explorations.

Continuity operator, microstructure, soliton waves, different frequencies of P- and S-waves

DOI: 10.1134/S1062739116061625 

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SCIENCE OF MINING MACHINES


QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATE OF ROTARYPERCUSSION DRILLING EFFICIENCY IN ROCKS
V. N. Oparin, V. V. Timonin, and V. N. Karpov

Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
e-mail: oparin@misd.ru

The factors that have significant influence on efficiency of rotarypercussion rock drilling with downhole machines are discussed. The results obtained in physical simulation of dynamic driving of rock-breaking indenters in rocks are reported. The results are analyzed from the standpoint of the phenomenon of alternating response of rocks to dynamic impacts.

Quantitative index of efficiency, rock destruction, downhole air drill hammer, drilling rig, rotarypercussion hole drilling, pendulum waves, dimensionless energy criterion, structure, stress state

DOI: 10.1134/S1062739116061637 

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ENHANCEMENT OF LONG HOLE DRILLING EFFICIENCY WITH DRILLING UNITS WITH REPLACEABLE CORE TUBES
A. L. Neverov, A. V. Minakov, V. A. Zhigarev, and D. D. Karataev

Siberian Federal University,
pr. Svobodnyi 79, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
e-mail: neveroff_man@mail.ru
Institute of Thermophysics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
pr. Akademika Lavrentieva 1, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Norilskgeologiya,
P. O. Box 889, Norilsk, 663330 Russia
e-mail: dd.karataev@norislkgeology.ru

The article presents a procedure to calculate fluid pressure losses in hole drilling with units equipped with replaceable core tubes and using non-Newtonian mud fluids. It is found that main hydraulic loss takes place when mud fluid flows in clearing between a drill string and drill hole walls. Numerical modeling has shown that it is possible to reduce hydraulic pressure loss by 76.589.0% by increasing drill string diameter by 2 mm. Based on the analytical research results, diamond drill bits and underreamers with the outer diameters of 78.0 and 78.4 mm, respectively, are manufactured for drilling operations in Talnakh ore field.

Mathematical model, non-Newtonian fluid, fluid pressure loss, nonstandard diamond drill bit

DOI: 10.1134/S1062739116061649 

REFERENCES
1. Budyukov, Yu.E., Vlasyuk, V.I., and Spirin, V.I., Almaznyi porodorazrushayushchii instrument (Diamond Rock-Breaking Tool), Tula: IPP Grif i K, 2005.
2. Budyukov, Yu.E., Sozdanie i proizvodstvo spetsialnogo almaznogo burovogo instrumenta: obzor (Design and Manufacture of a Special Diamond Drilling Tool: Review), Moscow: MGP Geoinformmark, 1993.
3. Grigorev, V.V., Burenie so semnymi kernopriemnikami (Drilling with Replaceable Core Tubes), Moscow: Nedra, 1986.
4. Isaev, M.L. and Onishchenko, V.P., Burenie skvazhin so semnymi kernopriemnikami (Hole Drilling with Replaceable Core Tubes), Leningrad: Nedra, 1975.
5. Afanasev, I.S., Gorbushin, A.P., and Lebedev, V.I., Opyt skorostnogo geologorazvedochnogo bureniya (Experience of Rapid Exploration Drilling), Leningrad: Nedra, 1986.
6. Kravtsov, B.F., Issledovanie, razrabotka i vnedrenie tekhnologii almaznogo bureniya skvazhin na tverdye poleznye iskopaemye (Research, Development and Introduction of Diamond Drilling technology for Hard Minerals), Moscow: VPO Soyuzgeotekhnika, 1984.
7. Kudryashov, B.B. and Yakovlev, A.M., Burenie skvazhin v oslozhnennykh usloviyakh (Hole Drilling in Complicated Conditions), Moscow: Nedra, 1987.
8. Novikov, V.S., Ustoichivost glinistykh porod pri burenii skvazhin (Clayey Rock Stability under Hole Drilling), Moscow: Nedra, 2000.
9. Solovev, N.V., Promyvka skvazhin s poverkhnostno-aktivnymi i polimernymi dobavkami (Flushing-Out of Wells with Surface-Active and Polymeric Additives), Moscow: MGRI, 1983.
10. Neskoromnykh V. V., Neverov, A.L., Rozhkov, V.P., Karataev, D.D., and Neverov, A.A., Analysis of Ground Conditions for Drilling at the Talnakh Ore Cluster, Izv. TPU, 2015, vol. 326, no. 1, pp. 100111.
11. Neverov, A.L., Rozhkov, V.P., Karataev, D.D., and Neverov, A.A., Analysis of Influence of Salt Solutions on Hydration of Clayey Minerals during Hole Drilling in Terms of the Talnakh Ore Cluster, Izv. TPU, 2015, vo. 326, no. 2, pp. 103117.
12. Neverov, A.L., Rozhkov, V.P., Karataev, D.D., Matveev, A.V., and Yurev, P.O., Analysis of Influence of Finely Dispersed Slurry on Properties of Drill Fluids during Hole Drilling with Replaceable Core Tubes at the Talnakh Ore Cluster, Izv. TPU, 2015, vol. 326, no. 8, pp. 110119.
13. Neverov, A.L., Rozhkov, V.P., Samorodsky, P.N., Karataev, D.D., and Neverov, A.A., Research and Development of Mud Fluids for Drilling with KSSK Systems at the Talnakh Ore Cluster, Izv. SO RAN, Series: Geosciences. Geology, Prospecting and Exploration of Ore Deposits, 2014, no. 3(46), pp. 6173.
14. Neverov, A.L., Rozhkov, V.P., Batalina, L.S., and Mineev, A.V., Influence of Simple Salts on Rheological properties of Polymeric Solutions for Drilling with SSK Systems in Clayey Formations, Izv. TPU, 2013, vol. 323, no. 1, pp. 196200.
15. Forshkov, L.K. and Mendebaev, T.N., Razvedochnoe burenie s gidroizvlecheniem kernoprimenika (Exploration Drilling with the Hydraulic Removal of Core Tube), Saint-Petersburg: Nedra, 1994.
16. Gorshkov, L.K. and Osetsky, A.I., Development of Principles of Design and Operation of a New Diamond Rock-Breaking Tool), Zap. Gorn. Inst., 2012, vol. 197, pp. 4046.
17. Belov, I.A. and Isaev, S.A., Modelirovanie turbulentnykh techenii: ucheb. posob. (Modeling Turbulent Flows: Educational Aid), Saint-Petersburg: BGTU, 2001.
18. Ferziger, J.H., Computational Methods for Fluid Dynamics, Berlin: Springer Verlag, 2002.
19. Batchelor, J.K., An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, 1967.
20. Launder, B.E., Lectures in Mathematical Models of Turbulence, Academic Press, London, England, 1972.
21. Gavrilov, A.A., Minakov, A.V., Dekterev, A.A., and Rudyak, V.A., Modeling Algorithm of Stable Laminar Flows of Non-Newtonian Fluids in Annulus with Eccentricity, Vychislit. Tekhnol., 2012, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 4456.
22. Gavrilov, A.A., Dekterev, A.A., Minakov, A.V., and Rudyak, V.A., A Numerical Algorithm for Modeling Laminar Flows in an Annular Channel with Eccentricity, Journal of Applied and Industrial Mathematics, 2011, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 559568.


SMALL-SIZE DOWNHOLE AIR DRILL HAMMERS OF INCREASED CAPACITY
A. A. Repin, V. V. Timonin, S. E. Alekseev, D. I. Kokoulin, and A. I. Popelyukh

Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
e-mail: repin@misd.ru
Novosibirsk State Technical University,
pr. K. Marksa 20, Novosibirsk, 630092 Russia

The authors review key approaches to designing small-size air drill hammers. The approach to increasing impact capacity of air drill hammers by means of buildup of blow frequency is substantiated. The experimentally obtained and compared characteristics of air drill hammers equipped with the heads made of steel and titanium prove feasibility of increasing impact capacity by means of using low density materials. The technology of thermal treatment of a titanium-alloy hammer head is described, and its laboratory testing results are reported.

Drilling, air drill hammer, capacity, effective area, thermal treatment, titanium alloys, cementation

DOI: 10.1134/S1062739116061650 

REFERENCES
1. Repin, A.A. and Alekseev, S.E., Air-Percussion Reamer: Practical Experience and Future Prospects, Proc. 21st Word Mining Congress & Expo 2008, Poland, Krakow-Katowice-Sosnowiec, 2008, vol. 29.
2. Eremenko, V.A., Karpov, V.N., Timonin, V.V., Barnov, N.G., and Shakhtorin, I.O., Basic Trends in Development of Drilling Equipment for Ore Mining with Block Caving Method, J. Min. Sci., 2015, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 11131125.
3. Petreev, A.M. and Primychkin, A.Yu., Influence of Air Distribution System on Energy Efficiency of Pneumatic Percussion Unit of Circular Impact Machine, J. Min. Sci., 2015, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 562567.
4. Alekseev, S.E., Timonin, V.V., Kokoulin, D.I., Shakhtorin, I.O., and Kubanychbek, B., Development of Small-Size Downhole Air Hammer for Investigation Hole Drilling, J. Fundament. Appl. Min. Sci., 2015, vol. 2, pp. 187193.
5. Timonin, V.V., Justification of Rock-Breaking Tool and Hydraulic Impact Machine Designs for Medium- and Hard Rock Drilling, Synopsis Cand. Tech. Sci. Thesis, Novosibirsk, 2009.
6. Karpov, V.N. and Timonin, V.V., Estimation Procedure of Downhole Percussive Machine Efficiency in Full-Scale PercussionRotary Drilling, Proc. 2nd Int. Academician Trubetskoys School Integrated Subsoil Development and Preservation: Problems and Prospects, Moscow: IPKON RAN, 2016, pp. 191195.
7. Repin, A.A., Smolyanitsky, B.N., Alekseev, S.E., Popelyukh, A.I., Timonin, V.V., and Karpov, V.N., Downhole High-Pressure Air Hammers for Open Pit Mining, J. Min. Sci., 2014, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 929937.
8. Timonin, V.V., Downhole Air Drill Hammers for Underground Mining, Gorn. Oborud. Elektromekh., 2015, no. 2(111), pp. 1317.
9. Ivanov, K.I., Glazunov, V.N., and Nadion, M.F., Sovremennye metody bureniya krepkikh porod (Modern Methods of Hard Rock Drilling), Moscow: Gos. Nauch.-Tekh. Izd. Lit. Gorn. Delu, 1963.
10. Lipin, A.A., Timonin, V.V., and Tanaino, A.S., Modern Downhole Percussive Drilling Machines, Katalog-spravochnik Gornaya Tekhnika (Mining Equipment: CatalogReference), Saint-Petersburg, 2006, pp. 116123.
11. Denisova, E.V. and Konurin, A.I., Geomechanical Model of the Pneumatic Borer and Soil Interaction, J. Min. Sci., 2013, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 724730.
12. Shadrina, A.V. and Saruev, L.A., Analysis and Scientific Generalization of Test Date on Small-Diameter PercussionRotary Drilling in Underground Excavations, Izv. TPU, 2015, vol. 326, no. 8, pp. 120136.
13. Sudnishnikov, B.V., Esin, N.N., and Tupitsyn, K.K., Issledovanie i konstruirovanie pnevmaticheskikh mashin udarnogo deistviya (Analysis and Design of Pneumatic Impacting Machines), Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1985.
14. Alekseev, S.E., RF patent no. 2090730, Byull. Izobret., 1997, no. 26.
15. Repin, A.A., Alekseev, S.E., and Pyatnin, G.A., RF patent no. 2343266, Byull. Izobret., 2009, no. 1.
16. Repin, A.A., Alekseev, S.E., and Karpov, V.N., RF Useful model no. 121854, Byull. Izobret., 2012, no. 31.
17. Ilin, A.A., Kolachev, B.A., and Polkin, I.S., Titanovye splavy. Sostav, struktura, svoistva. Spravochnik (Titanium Alloys. Composition, Structure, Properties. Reference Book), Moscow: VILS-MATI, 2009.
18. Repin, A.A., Alekseev, S.E., Timonin, V.V., and Karpov, V.N., Analysis of the Compressed Air Distribution in Down-the-Hole Percussion Machine, Proc. Int. Symp. Miners Week2015, 2015, pp. 475482.
19. Esin, N.N., Metodika issledovaniya i dovodki pnevmaticheskikh molotkov (Procedure to Test and Debug Air Drill Hammers), N. A. Chinakal (Ed.), Novosibirsk, 1965.
20. Shakhtorin, I.O. and Timonin, V.V., Debugging Percussive Machines Using Modern Software, Electronic Proc. All-Russian Sci. Current Challenges in Mining and Ground Condition Modeling Methods IN Partnership with Foreign Scientists, Kemerovo, 2015.


IDENTIFICATION OF LOAD TO DOG HEADING SUPPORT DURING. A. ROCKBURST
A. Nierobisz

Central Mining Institute, pl. Gwarkow 1, 40–166 Katowice, Poland
e-mail: anierobisz@gig.eu

This paper presents the methods and test results of the dynamic resistance of chock and rockbolt support used in Poland. By the dynamic resistance of the support is meant the ability to absorb and suppress the fast changing with time load with the value frequently exceeding the working support capacity of the supports. This feature is required when using the support in excavations endangered by rock mass tremors, especially such tremors, which can result in rockbursts. Based on the carried out studies and analyses, numerical values of loads are given that cause the slide of a friction prop, bending the support sections, loss of stability of dog heading support and load-carrying ability of bolts.

Mining industry, heading support, rockbolt support, rockburst, test results

DOI: 10.1134/S1062739116061662 

REFERENCES
1. Bilinski, A., The Maintenance Rules of Working in the Longwalls Endangered with Roof Rockbursts, Archiwum Gornictwa, 1983, vol. 28, zeszyt 2.
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3. Debkowski, R., Madziarz, M., Sawicki, W., and Osadczuk, T., Testing of Changes in the Load to Expansion Bolts as a Result of Seismic Tremor Activity, Prace Naukowe Instytutu Geotechniki i Hydrotechniki Politechniki Wroclawskiej, 2007, no. 76.
4. Rulka, K., Uproszczone zasady doboru obudowy korytarzowych wyrobisk przygotowawczych (Simplified Selection Rules of Preparatory Dog Heading Supports), Zaklad Technologii Eksploatacji i Obudow Gorniczych GIG, 2000.
5. Kidybinski, A., Basis for Selection of Dog Heading Support for Areas Endangered with Tremors and Rockbursts, Bezpieczenstwo Pracy w Gornictwie, 1988, no. 1.
6. Kidybinski, A., System analizy komputerowej stanu zagrozenia tapaniami w chodnikach weglowych oraz projektowania optymalnych srodkow zabezpieczenia (The Computer Analysis System of Rockburst Threat in Coal Dog Headings and Designing Optimal Security Measures), Glowny Instytut Gornictwa, Seria dodatkowa, 1990.
7. Skrzynski K. Nosnosc dynamiczna stojakow ciernych (Dynamic Load Capacity of Friction Props) Monografia GIG, Badania nad dynamika obciazen obudowy wyrobisk gorniczych, 1999.
8. PN-G-15533, Gornicza obudowa indywidualna. Stojaki cierne. Wymagania i badania (Mining Individual Support. Friction Props. Requirements and Tests), 1997.
9 Skrzynski, K., Analiza odpornosci prostych odcinkow ksztaltownikow V na obciazenia dynamiczne udarem masy, na podstawie wynikow laboratoryjnych badan wytrzymalosciowych (Analysis of Resistance of Straight Segments of V Sections to Dynamic Loads with Impact Weight, Based on the Results of Laboratory Strength Tests), Prace Naukowe GIG, Seria Konferencje, 2000.
10. PN-G-15000/05, Odrzwia lukowe otwarte. Badania stanowiskowe (Open Arch Support. Stand Tests), 1992.
11. Kowalski, E., Wplyw parametrow technicznych odrzwi lukowej obudowy chodnikowej na zdolnosc przejmowania obciazen dynamicznych (The Influence of the Technical Parameters of the Arch Dog Heading Support on the Ability of Withstanding the Dynamic Load), Praca Doktorska, 1997.
12. Butra, J., Mrozek, K., and Osadczuk, T., The Current State of Rockburst Hazards in the Mines of KGHM Polska Miedz S. A., Prace Naukowe Instytutu Geotechniki i Hydrotechniki Politechniki Wroclawskiej, 1983, no. 76.
13. Szczerbinski, J. and Mirek, A., Prawne uregulowania prowadzenia robot gorniczych w warunkach zagrozenia tapaniami (Legal Regulation of Conducting Mining Works in Rock Burst Hazards Conditions), Materialy Miedzynarodowego Sympozjum Naukowo-Technicznego Tapania, Wydawnictwo GIG, 2002.
14. Grzebyk, W., Kosior, A., and Pytel, W., Ocena wplywu wstrzasow sejsmicznych na statecznosc wyrobisk gorniczych na podstawie rzeczywistych wartosci predkosci drgan osrodka. (Assessment of the Seismic Tremor Impact on the Stability of Underground Workings Based on the Actual Values of Medium Vibrations Velocity), Materialy 23 Zimowej Szkoly Mechaniki Gorotworu, 2000.
15. Kidybinski, A., Criteria for Damage or Destruction of Dog Headings and Chamber Workings due to Rockbursts, Bezpieczenstwo Pracy i Ochrona Srodowiska w Gornictwie, 1999, no. 5.
16. Prace Naukowe GIG, Seria Konferencje No 1. Obudowa kotwiowa w warunkach wstrzasow i tapan (Rockbolt Support in Tremors and Rockursts Conditions), 1995.
17. Nierobisz, A., (Underground Tests of the Bumps Influence on the Roof Bolts Behavior in the Hard Coal Mines, Cuprum, 2003, no. 3.
18. Kidybinski, A., Nierobisz, A., and Masny, W., Impact of Close Tremor on Damages in Dog Heading, Bezpieczenstwo Pracy i Ochrona Srodowiska w Gornictwie, 2005, no. 8.
19. Nierobisz, A., The Research Results of Simulated Rock Mass Tremors Impact on the Stability of Dog Heading, Bezpieczenstwo Pracy i Ochrona Srodowiska w Gornictwie, 2005, no. 9.
20. Pytlik, A., Mining String Bolts of High Dynamic Resistance, Maszyny Gornicze, 2005, no. 3.
21. Pytlik, A., Determination and Impact Assessment of Mining Bolts on the Basis of Stand Impact Weight Tests, Sprawozdanie z Realizacji Projektu Badawczego Wlasnego, Project No. 5 T12A 01623, 2006.
22. Nierobisz, A., Analysis of the Impact of Parameters Characterizing the Rock Mass and Mine Support on Dog Heading Damage Resulting from the Rockburst, Przeglad Gorniczy, 2013, no. 12.
23. Mutke, G., Characteristics of Near-Field Ground Motion Resulting from Mining Tremors to Assessing of Rockbursts Hazard, Prace Naukowe Glownego Instytutu Gornictwa, 2007, no. 872.
24. Mutke, G., The Evaluation of the Potential Risks to the Stability of Longwall Workings Subjected to the Rock Mass Tremors, Prace Naukowe Glownego Instytutu Gornictwa, 2011, no. 4/2.
25. Dudzic, T., Korzeniowski, W., and Piechota, S., Badanie wplywu robot strzalowych na zakotwiony strop wyrobiska komorowego (Study into the Impact of Shooting on Bolted Roof of Chamber Excavation), Zeszyty Naukowe AGH, Gornictwo i Geoinzynieria, 2004, z.1.
26. Staniek, A., Badania wplywu wstrzasow gorotworu na ciaglosc wklejania zerdzi kotwiowych. (Investigation of Rock Mass Tremor Effect on the Continuity of Grouting Bolt Rods), Materialy 12 Miedzynarodowej Konferencji Naukowo-Technicznej Gornicze Zagrozenia Naturalne, 2005.
27. Nierobisz, A., The Role of Support in Maintenance of Dog Headings in the Rockburst Hazard Conditions, Prace Naukowe Glownego Instytutu Gornictwa, 2012, no. 887.


MINERAL MINING TECHNOLOGY


DETERMINATION OF OPEN PIT DIAMOND MINE LIMITS WITH REGARD TO STRIPPING TIME DIFFERENCE
V. L. Yakovlev, I. V. Zyryanov, A. N. Akishev, and G. G. Sakantsev

Institute of Mining, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Mamina-Sibiryaka 58, Ekaterinburg, 620075 Russia
e-mail: yakovlev@igduran.ru
Yakutniproalmaz Institute, ALROSA,
ul. Lenina 39, Mirny, 678174 Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia

The analysis of methods to account for stripping time difference at the stage of determination of limits in deep open pit mining reveals advantages and shortcomings of the methods and provides a principled approach to determination of a discount ultimate strip ratio for the most representative geological and geotechnical conditions of diamond-bearing ore bodies in the form of single pipes. Discounting of marginal strip ratios is based on adding the common formula with an average mean discount coefficient represented by a correlation of mining rate decrease, stripping zone height and highwall slope angle. It is shown that target variation of the factors included in the discount marginal strip ratio allows considerable influence on depth and efficiency of open pit mining.

Open pit mine limits, marginal strip ratio, discountiing coefficient, stripping zone height, stripping rate decrease, highwall slope

DOI: 10.1134/S1062739116061674 

REFERENCES
1. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po otsenke effektivnosti investitsionnykh proektov (Instructional Guidelines on Evaluation of Investment Project Efficiency), Moscow: Ekonomika, 2000.
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3. Khokhryakov, V.S., Otsenka effektivnosti investitsionnykh proektov otkrytykh gornykh razrabotok: ucheb. posob. (Evaluation of Open Pit Mining Investment Efficiency: Educational Aid), Ekaterinburg: UGGA, 1996.
4. Trubetskoy, K.N., Peshkov, A.A., and Matsko, N.A., Methods to Evaluate Mine Investment Efficiency, Gorny Zh., 1993, no. 2, pp. 311.
5. Yakovlev, V.L., Sakantsev, M.G., and Sakantsev, G.G., Granitsy karerov pri proektirovanii razrabotki slozhnostrukturnykh mestorozhdenii (Open Pit Mine Limits in Planning Development of Complex-Structure Deposits), Ekaterinburg: IGD UrO RAN, 2009.
6. Sakantsev, M.G., Optimizing Open Pit Ming Depth Using the Marginal Strip Ratio Based on the Profit/Cost Time Difference, Gorny Zh., 1973, no. 12, pp. 38.
7. Ordin, A.A. and Klishin, V.I., Optimizatsiya tekhnologicheskikh parametrov gornodobyvayushchikh predpriyatii na osnove lagovykh modelei (Optimization of Mining Technology Based on Lag Modeling), Novosibirsk: Nauka, 2009.
8. Sakantsev, G.G., Express-Method to Determine Open Pit Limits, Considering Factor of Time, Probl. Nedropolz., 2015, issue 3, pp. 2734. Available at: trud.igduran.ru.
9. Kolganov, V.F. and Akishev, A.N., Korennye mestorozhdeniya almazov Zapadnoi Yakutii: sprav. posob. (Primary Diamond Deposits in the Western Yakutia: Reference Aid), Novosibirsk: Geo, 2011.
10. Brandon, D.B., Developing Mathematical Models for Computer Control, ISA Journal, 1959, no. 7.
11. Khokhryakov, V.S. and Sakantsev, G.G., Analysis of Accuracy of Technical and Economic Performance Characteristics in Open Pit Mining, Gorny Zh., 1968, no. 5, pp. 521.
12. Khokhryakov, V.S., Proektirovanie karerov: uchebnik dlya vuzov (Open Pit Ming Planning: University Textbook), Moscow: Nedra, 1992.
13. Edinaya metodika proektirovaniya gornodobyvayushchikh predpriyatii chernoi metallurgii s otkryrym sposobom razrabotki (Unified Procedure for Open Pit Mine Planning in the Iron and Steel Industry), Leningrad: Giproruda, 1963.
14. Istomin, V.V., Open Pit Mining and Its Economic Appraisal, Gornye nauki i promyshlennost: sb. st. Posvyashchaetsya 70-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya VV. Rzhevskogo (Mining Sciences and Industry: Collected Papers. Dedicated to V. V. Rzhevsky 70th Anniversary), Moscow: Nedra, 1989.


TECHNOLOGY OF ABANDONED ORE DRAWING USING CANOPIES
V. I. Golik

Geophysical Institute, Vladikavkaz Science Center, Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Markova 93a, Vladikavkaz, 362002 Russia
e-mail: v.i.golik@mail.ru

The author characterizes ore production loss depending on time, properties and production technology. Typification of technologies aimed at improvement of ore-drawing quality using canopies is performed. Operating principle of canopies is theoretically generalized, and recommendations on using canopies are made. It is proved that separation of abandoned ore from overlying rocks under canopies during ore-drawing improves mineral production quality.

Subsoil, abandoned ore, rocks, technology, canopy, theoretical generAlization, operating pricniple, application conditions, mineral quality

DOI: 10.1134/S1062739116061686 

REFERENCES
1. Golik,V.I. and Komashchenko, V.I., Prirodookhrannye tekhnologii upravleniya sostoyaniem massiva na geomekhanicheskoi osnove (Environmental Technologies of Rock Mass Control in the Framework of Geomechanics), Moscow: KDU, 2010.
2. Golik, V.I., and Ismailov, T.T., Upravlenie sostoyaniem massiva (Rock Mass Control). Moscow: MGGU, 2005.
3. Golik, V.I., Yakimenko, A.D., and Tsidaev, T.S., Sadon Deposits: History and Problems, Gorny Zh., 2004, no. 10, pp. 2427.
4. Yakimenko, A.D. and Golik, V.I., Problems Connected with the Ore Quality Provision in the Secondary Mining at Sandon Deposits, 65 let NIS SKGMI: sb. (The 65th Anniversary of the Research Sector at the North Caucasus Institute for Mining and Metallurgy: Collected Papers), Vladikavkaz: Terek, 2004.
5. Shestakov, V.A., Razorenov, Yu.I., Belodedov, A.A. et al., Determination of Basic Indications of Subsoil Use, Razrabotka nauchnykh osnov i sposobov resursosberegayushchei i ekologicheski chistoi tekhnologii dobychi poleznykh iskopaemykh: sb. nauch. tr. YuRGTUNPI (Development of Theoretical and Practical Framework for the Resource-Saving and Ecology-Friendly Mineral Mining Technology: Platov South-Russian State Polytechnic University (NPI) Transactions), Novocherkassk: NABLA, 2005.
6. Yakimenko, A.D. and Golik, V.I., Improvement of Secondary Mining Technology for Man-Made Mineral Formations, Tsvet. Metallurg., 2004, no. 1, pp. 29.
7. Rakishev, B.R., Comprehensive Utilization of Ore by the Nonferrous Metallurgy in Kazakhstan, Gorny Zh., 2013, no. 7, pp. 5664.
8. Fomenko, A.A., Mine Waste Management and Low-Grade Nonferrous Metal Ore Utilization in the Contexts of the Ecosystem Exploitation Economy, Gorny Zh., 2013, no. 2, pp. 8995.
9. Rasskazov, I.Yu, and Sekisov, G.V., Design of Scientific-Industrial MiningTechnological Complexes for Innovative Supply of Mining Industry, GIAB, 2014, no. 9, pp. 121126.
10. Yastrebinsky, M.A., Economic Assessment of the Market Criterion of Discount Cost and Profit, GIAB, 2014, no. 6, pp. 6774.


OPTIMAL COMBINATION TECHNOLOGY FOR HIGH-GRADE QUARTZ PRODUCTION BASED ON MODELING
I. V. Sokolov, A. A. Smirnov, Yu. G. Antipin, K. V. Baranovsky, and A. A. Rozhkov

Institute of Mining, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Mamina-Sibiryaka 58, Ekaterinburg, 620219 Russia
e-mail: geotech@igduran.ru

The article describes the applied research findings on selecting a resource-saving technology to ensure drastic reduction in loss of high-grade Kyshtym quartz. The economicalmathematical modeling yields relationships between mine efficiency, ground conditions, mine design and technology factors, and the optimal variant of a combination mining technology is determined using the maximum profit criterion. Full-scale physical simulation of closed-spaced charge blasting effect on reduction in overgrinding of quartz is discussed. Drilling and blasting pattern for experimental breaking of quartz by explosions is determined.

Quartz deposit, underground technology, combination mining method, loss and dilution, drilling and blasting

DOI: 10.1134/S1062739116061698 

REFERENCES
1. Sokolov, I.V., Kornilkov, S.V., Sashurin, A.D., Kuzmin, V.G., and Shemyakin, V.S., Formation of Science and Technology Backup for Introduction of Integrated Technology of Highly Valuable Quartz Mining and Processing, Gorny Zh., 2014, no. 12.
2. Sokolov, I.V., Smirnov, A.A., Antipin, Yu.G., Baranovsky, K.V., and Rozhkov, A.A., Resource- Saving Technology for Underground Mining of High-Value Quartz in Kyshtym, J. Min. Sci., 2015, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 11911202.
3. Sokolov, I.V., Smirnov, A.A., and Antipin, Yu.G., Science and Technology Framework for Integrated High-Value Quartz Mining and Processing, Combination Geotechnology: Sustainable and Ecologically Balanced Subsoil Management: Proc. Int. Conf., Magnitogorsk: MGTU, 2015, pp. 118119.
4. Volkov, Yu.V., Sokolov, I.V., and Kamaev, V.D., Vybor sistem podzemnoi razrabotki rudnykh mestorozhdenii Urala (Selection of Underground Mining Methods for Ural Deposits), Ekaterinburg: UrO RAN, 2002.
5. Sokolov, I.V., Smirnov, A.A., Antipin, Yu.G., and Sokolov, R.I., Influence of Extraction Indexes of Efficiency of Underground Ore Mining Technology, Izv. Vuzov, Gorny Zh., 2012, no. 3, pp. 4111.
6. Gorinov, S.A., Efficiency of Plane Systems of Charges in Underground Extraction of Highly Jointed Ore, Izv. Vuzov, Gorny Zh., 1985, no. 7, pp. 6873.
7. Gorinov, S.A. and Smirnov, A.A., Effect of Explosion of Plane System of Charges in Rock Mass, GIAB, 2001, no. 4, pp. 4250.
8. Borovikov, V.A. and Vanyagin, I.F., Modelirovanie deistviya vzryva pri razrushenii gornykh porod (Modeling Effect of Explosion in Rock Breakage), Moscow: Nedra, 1990.
9. Baum, F.A., Orlenko, L.P., Stanyukovich, K.P., Chelyshev, V.P., and Shekhter, B.I., Fizika vzryva (Physics of Explosion), Moscow: Nauka, 1975.
10. Belin, V.A. and Kryukov, G. M. Results Development in the Theory of Rock Breakage by Blasting, Vzryv. Delo, 2013, no. 105/62, pp. 2346.
11. Menzhulin, M.G., Afanasev, P.I., and Kazmina, A.Yu., Dissipation Energy Calculation Based on Detected Induced Jointing under Travel of Stress Waves, Vzryv. Delo, 2013, no. 109/66, pp. 7378.
12. Kazakov, N.N., Shlyapin, A.V., and Lapikov, I.N., Model of Cavity and Some Parameters of Quasi-Static Phase of Finite-Length Charge Blasting, Vzryv. Delo, 2013, no. 109/66, pp. 317.
13. Shapurin, A.V., and Vasilchuk, Ya.V., Rock Fragmentation Quality as a Result of Integrated Effect of Various Factors, Vestn. KuzGTU, 2011, no. 29, pp. 1317.
14. Baron, L.I. and Licheli, G.P., Treshchinovatost gornykh porod pri vzryvnoi otboike (Rock Jointing under Blasting), Moscow: Nedra, 1966.
15. Furtney, S. J. K., Sellers, E., and Onederra, I., Simple Models for the Complex Process of Rock Blasting, Rock Fragmentation by Blasting: Fragblast 10, Edited by Pradeep K. Singh, Amalendu Sinha, Leiden, Netherlands: CRC Press, 2013, pp. 275282.
16. Akande, J.M. and Lawal, A.I., Optimization of Blasting Parameters Using Regression Models in Ratcon and NSCE Granite Quarries, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria, Geomaterials, 2013, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 2837.
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18. Baron, L.I., Gornotekhnologicheskoe porodovedenie. Predmet i sposoby issledovaniya (Geotechnical Science on Rocks. Subject and Research Methods), Moscow: Nauka, 1977.


MINERAL DRESSING


IMPULSE ENERGY INPUTS TO MODIFY SUBSURFACE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS AND PROCESS PROPERTIES OF CALCIUM-BEARING MINERALS
M. V. Ryazantseva, I. Zh. Bunin, and E. V. Koporulina

Institute of Integrated Mineral DevelopmentIPKON, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Kryukovskii tupik 4, Moscow, 111020 Russia
e-mail: ryazanceva@mail.ru

Using Hammett indicators, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy, the authors analyze influence of high-voltage nanosecond impulses on structure and chemistry of surface and on process properties of calcium-bearing minerals. As a result of impulse energy inputs for t ≤ 30 s, the change in the structure and functions of mineral surface includes: enhancement of electrondonor capacity and formation of structural defects on the surface of fluorite, and enhancement of acceptor capacity of the surface of calcite and scheelite. Pre-treatment of mono-mineral samples by electrical impulses increases flotation ability of calcium-bearing minerals: increment in froth recovery makes 1012% for scheelite, 56% for fluorite and 78% for calcite. Calcite, fluorite, scheelite, high-voltage nanosecond impulses, Hammett acid-base indicators, X-ray fluorescence, microscopy, mono-mineral fraction

DOI: 10.1134/S106273911606170X

REFERENCES
1. Chanturia, V.A., Bunin, I.Zh., and Khabarova, I.A., Influence of Nanosecond Electromagnetic Pulses on Phase Surface Composition , Electrochemical, Sorption, and Flotation Properties of Chalcopyrite and Sphalerite, J. Min. Sci., 2012, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 732740.
2. Chanturia, V.A., Bunin, I.Zh., Ryazantseva, M.V., and Khabarova, I.A., X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy-Based Analysis of Change in the Composition and Chemical State of Atoms of Chalcopyrite and Sphalerite Surface before and after the Nanosecond Electromagnetic Pulse Treatment, J. Min. Sci., 2013, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 489498.
3. Chanturia, V.A., Bunin, I.Zh., Ryazantseva, M.V., Khabarova, I.A., Koporulina, E.V., and Anashkina, N.E., Surface Activation and Induced Change of Physicochemical and Process Properties of Galena by Nanosecond Electromagnetic Pulses, J. Min. Sci., 2014, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 573586.
4. Ryazantseva, M.V. and Bunin, I.Zh., Modifying Acid-Base Surface Properties of Calcite, Fluorite, and Scheelite under Electromagnetic Pulse Treatment, J. Min. Sci., 2015, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 10161020.
5. Nechiporenko, A.P., Burenina, T.A., and Koltsov, S.I., Indicator Method to Study Surface Acidity of Solids, Zh. Obshchei Khim., 1985, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 19071912.
6. Nechiporenko, A.P., Donor?Acceptor Surface Properties of Solid Oxides and Chalcogenides, Dr. Chem. Sci. Thesis, Saint-Petersburg, 1995.
7. Tanabe, K., Tverdye kisloty i osnovaniya (Solid Acids and Bases), Moscow: Mir, 1973.
8. Lupashko, T.N., Shugina, T.N., Silave, V.I., Tarashchan, A.N., Bagmut, N.N., and Kalinichenko, A.M., Spectroscopic Properties of Fluorite as a Criterion for Metallogenetic Typification of Rare Metal Deposits, Proc. Int. CIS Meeting Alkaline Magmatism of the Earth and Its Ore Content, Kiev, 2007, pp. 153159.
9. Krasilshchikova, O.A., Tarashchan, A.N., and Platonov, A.N., Okraska i lyuminestsentsiya prirodnogo fluorita (Color and Luminescence of Natural Fluorite) Kiev: Nauk. Dumka, 1986.
10. Barsky, L.A., Kononov, O.V., and Ratmirova, L.I., Selektivnaya flotatsiya kaltsiisoderzhashchikh mineralov (Selective Flotation of Calcium?Bearing Minerals), Moscow: Nedra, 1979.
11. Tarashchan, A.N., Lyuminestsentsiya mineralov (Mineral Luminescence), Kiev: Nauk. Dumka, 1978.


COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF BIO-REAGENT TO INTENSIFY LEACHING OF NONFERROUS METALS FROM SULFIDE ORES AND CONCENTRATES
L. N. Krylova and V. A. Ignatkina

National University of Science and TechnologyMISIS,
Leninskii pr. 4, Moscow, 119049 Russia
e-mail: krylov@yandex.ru

New information is obtained on composition and properties of a bio-reagentoxidizer generated by mesophilic aerobic chemo-tropholytic bacteria Acidithiobaccilus ferrooxidans under oxidation of iron (II) ions in sulfuric acid solution. The composition and properties of the bio-reagent are compared with iron (III) sulfate used to intensify agitation and heap leaching of metals from sulfide ores and concentrates. The research with IR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, Moessbauer spectrometry and potentiometry has revealed distinctive features of the bio-reagent and explained the experimentally observed increase in its oxidative activity when interacting with minerals.

Bio-reagent, iron-oxidizing bacteria, iron sulfate, molecular composition, iron-crystal structure, phase composition, functional groups, centrifugal separation, oxidative activity, sedimentation

DOI: 10.1134/S1062739116061711 

REFERENCES
1. Polkin, S.I., Adamov, E.V., and Panin, V.V., Tekhnologiya bakterialnogo vyshchelachivaniya tsvetnykh i redkikh metallov (Process for Bacterial Leaching of Nonferrous and Rare Metals), Moscow: Nedra, 1982.
2. Dew, D.W., Lawso, E.N., and Broadhurst, J.L., The BIOX Process for Biooxidation of Gold-Bearing Ores or Concentrates, Biomining: Theory, Microbes and Industrial Processes, Eds. D. E. Rawlings. Berlin: Springer, 1997, pp. 4580.
3. Grundwell, F.K., Ciminelli, V. S. T., and Garsia, O., How Do Bacteria Interact with Minerals, Biohydrometallurgy: Fundamentals Technology and Sustainable Development, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2001, pp. 149157.
4. Fomchenko, N.V. and Muravev, M.I., Studies of Chemical Oxidation of Gold?Arsenic Concentrates with Chemical and Biological Ferric Iron, Proc. Int. Congress Biotechnologies: State of the Art and Prospects of Development, Part II, Moscow, 2009, pp. 325326.
5. Gusakov, M.S. and Krylova, L.N., Bacterial Ferriferrous Sulphates Solutions in Hydrometallurgy, Metallurg., 2012, no. 4, pp. 8991.
6. Mesa, M.M, Macias, M., and Cantero, D., Biological Iron Oxidation by Acidithiobacillus Ferrooxidants in a Packed-Bed Bioreactor, Chem. Biochem. Engineering Quart., 2002, no. 16, pp. 69?73.
7. Gehrke, T., Telegdi, J., Thierry, D., and Sand, W., Importance of Extracellular Polymeric Substances from Thiobacillus Ferrooxidants for Bioleaching, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 1998, vol. 64, pp. 27432747.
8. Sand, W. and Gehrke, T., Extracellular Polymeric Substances Mediate Bioleaching/Biocorrosion via Interfacial Processes Involving Iron (III) Ions and Acidophilic Bacteria, Res. Microbiol., 2006, vol. 157, pp. 49?56.
9. Yu, R.L., Tan, J.X., Yang, P., Sun, J., Ouyang, X.J., and Dai, Y.J., EPS-Contact-Leaching Mechanisms of Chalcopyrite Concentrates by A. Ferooxidans, Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China, 2008, vol. 18, pp. 14271432.
10. Rohwerder, T., Gehrke, T., Kinzler, K., and Sand, W., Bioleaching Review Part A: Progress in Bioleaching: Fundamentals and Mechanisms of Bacterial Metal Sulfide Oxidation, Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 2003, vol. 63, pp. 239248.
11. Fomchenko, N.V., Muravyov, M.I., and Kondrateva, T.F., Two-Stage Bacterial-Chemical Oxidation of Refractory Gold-Bearing Sulfidic Concentrates, Hydrometallurgy, 2010, vol. 101, no. 12, pp. 2834.
12. Menil, F., Systematic Trends of 57Fe Mossbauer Isomer Shifts in (FeOn) and (FeFn) Polyhedra. Evidence of a New Correlation between the Isomer Shift and the Inductive Effect of the Competing Bond TX(?Fe) (Where X is O or F and T Element with a Formal Positive Charge), J. Phys. and Chem. Solids, 1985, vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 763789.
13. Botvinko, I.V., Ekzopolisakharidy bakterii (Exopolysaccharides of Bacteria), Moscow: Vyssh. Shk., 1985.


MAGNETIZATION OF MINERALS BY RADIATION AND HEATING AND ITS PROSPECTS IN MINERAL PROCESSING
S. A. Kondratev, V. I. Rostovtsev, and I. I. Baksheeva

Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
e-mail: kondr@misd.nsc.ru

The article presents data of experimental studies into magnetic properties of iron-bearing sulfide and nonsulfide minerals under radiation and heating. It is found that bulk magnetic susceptibility has increased more than 100 times in pyrite and 6 times in bauxite ore. Usefulness of radiation-and-heating magnetization in modification and processing of bauxite and tin-bearing minerals is demonstrated.

Mineral raw material, bauxite, tin products, accelerated electron treatment, dry magnetic separation

DOI: 10.1134/S1062739116061723 

REFERENCES
1. Chanturia, V.A., Advanced Processes for Complex and Comprehensive Processing of Natural and Technogenic Mineral Materials, Plaksins Lectures?2014 Conf., Almaty, 2014, pp. 56.
2. Chanturia, V.A., Contemporary Problems of Mineral Raw Material Beneficiation in Russia, J. Min. Sci., 1999, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 314328.
3. Potapov, S.A., Chanturia, V.A., Polyakov, V.A., and Rostovtsev, V.I., Influence of Beam of Fast Electrons on Properties of Ferruginous Quartzites of the Mikhailov Deposit, J. Min. Sci., 1989, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 288291.
4. Wang H. and Lu S., Modifying Effect of Electron Beam Irradiation on Magnetic Property of Iron-Bearing Minerals, J. Physiochem. Probl. Miner. Proc., 2014, no. 50(1), pp. 7986.
5. Kondratev, S.A., Rostovtsev, V.I., Bochkarev, G.R., Pushkareva, G.I., and Kovalenko, K.A., Justification and Development of Innovative Technologies for Integrated Processing of Complex Ore and Mine Wastes, J. Min. Sci., 2014, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 959973.
6. Korobeinikov M. V., Bryazgin A. A., Bezuglov V. V., et al. Radiation?Thermal Treatment in Ore Dressing, IOP Conf. Series: Mat. Sci. Eng., 2015, vol. 81, no. 012124, pp. 16.
7. Rostovtsev, V.I., Radiation?Thermal Process to Modify Magnetic Properties of Minerals in Mineral Processing; Mineral Resource Development. Mining. Trends and Processes for Exploration and Development of Mineral Deposits. Geoecology, Proc. 11th Int. Sci. Conf. InterExpo GeoSibir?2015, vol. 3, Novosibirsk: Sib. Gos. Univer. Geosistem Tekhn., 2015, pp. 206210.
8. Bochkarev, G.R., Rostovtsev, V.I., Vobly, P.D., Zubkov, N.I., Kudryavtsev, A.M., Utkin, A.V., and Khavin, N.G., High-Gradient Magnetic Separator for Dressing of Weak?Magnetic Ores, J. Min. Sci., 2004, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 199204.
9. Wang, H, Bochkarev, G.R., Rostovtsev, V.I., and Veigelt, I.Yu., Improvement of Magnetic Properties of Iron-Bearing Minerals During Radiation?Thermal Treatment, J. Min. Sci., 2004, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 299408.
10. Kotova, O.B., Razmyslov, I.N., Rostovtsev, V.I., and Silaev, V.I., Radiative?Thermal Modification of Ferruginous Bauxites in the Course of their Processing, Obogashch. Rud, 2016, no. 4, pp. 1622.


MAGNETIC SEPARATION OF EUDIALYTE ORE UNDER PULP PULSATION
G. P. Andronov, I. B. Zakharova, N. M. Filimonova, V. V. Lvov, and T. N. Aleksandrova

Mining Institute, Kola Science Center, Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Fersmana 24, Apatity, 184209 Russia
e-mail: andronov@goi.Kolasc.net.ru
Saint-Petersburg Mining University,
V.O. 21-liniya 2, Saint-Petersburg, 199106 Russia

The article presents data on separation of minerals of eudialyte ore with low magnetic susceptibility using a high-intensity wet magnetic separator and pulp pulsation. The optimal separator variables of the magnetic field inductance, pulp pulsation and matrix filler diameter to ensure maximum efficiency of processing are determined.

Magnetic separation, magnetic inductance, pulp pulsation frequency, matrix rod diameter, eudialyte concentrate, nephelinefeldspar product, aegirine product

DOI: 10.1134/S1062739116061735 

REFERENCES
1. Chipanin, I.V., Investigation into Processing of Some Rare Metal Ores and Alluvials, Issledovaniya po obogashcheniyu poleznykh iskopaemykh (Mineral Processing Studies), Moscow: Gosgeoltekhizdat, 1961, pp. 104115.
2. Naifonov, T.B. and Zakharova, I.B., Investigation into Floatability of Eudialyte and Main Accompanying Minerals, Izv. Vuzov, Tsv. Metal., 1974, no. 1, pp. 1216.
3. Shvedova, T.F., Rossovskaya, T.S., and Lomteva, G.P., Influence of Eudialyte Ore Composition Specificities on Optimal Techniques for Their Beneficiation, Obogashchenie redkometallnykh rud (Rare Metal Ore Processing), Moscow: Inst. Rare Met. Industry, 1990, pp. 4547.
4. Naifonov, T.B., Beloborodov, V.I., Zakharova, I.B., and Zorina, T.A., Advanced Eudialyte Ore Processing Techniques, Obogashch. Rud, 1991, no. 1, pp. 1517.
5. Naifonov, T.B., Beloborodov, V.I., Zakharova, I.B., and Zorina, T.A., Flotation of Eudialyte with Phosphoric Acid-Based Agents, Izv. Vuzov, Tsv. Metall., 1991, no. 3, pp. 2326.
6. Kudrin, V.S. and Chistov, L.B., Present-Day Situation and Development Perspectives with Rare-Earth Metal Resources, Miner. Resurs. Rossii, 1996, no. 5, pp. 612.
7. Chistov, L.B., Okhrimenko, V.E., and Yufrakov, V.A., Eudialyte Ores as New Commercial Zirconium and Rare-Earth Elements Resources, Strategiya ispolzovaniya i razvitiya mineralno-syrevoi basy redkikh metallov Rossii v XX Veke (Strategy of Utilization and Development of Rare Metal Resources in XX Century), Moscow: IPKON, 1998, pp. 101110.
8. Booma de A., Degrez, M., Hubaux, P., and Lucion, C., MSWI Boiler Fly Ashes: Magnetic Separation for Material Recovery, Waste Management, 2011, vol. 31, pp. 15051513.
9. Tarakhanov, A.V. and Kurkov, A.V., Perspectives in Development of Rare-Metal and Rare-Earth Eudialyte Ores of the Lovozero Deposit, Gorny Zh., 2012, no. 4, pp. 5456.
10. Ciesla, A. Use of the Low (LTS) and High (HTS) Temperature Superconductors in Magnetic Separation, Economic Comparison, Przeglad elektrotechniczny (Electrical Review), 2011, vol. 3, pp. 2124.
11. Zakharova, I.B., Rukhlenko, E.D., Andronov, G.P., and Vitsina, Ya.V., Mineralogical and Processing Specifications of Eudialyte?Lujavrite Ore, Proc. 9th CIS Mineral Processing Congress, vol. I, Moscow: MISiS, 2013, pp. 255258.
12. Chen, L., Qian, Z., Wen, S., Huang, S., High-Gradient Magnetic Separation of Ultrafine Particles with Rod Matrix, Min. Proc. Extract. Metal. Rev., 2013, vol. 34, pp. 340347.
13. Azbel, Yu.I., Dmitriev, S.V., Lvov, V.V., and Mezenin, A.O., High-Gradient Magnetic Separation of Rough Ilmenite Concentrates, Obogashch. Rud, 2014, no. 5, pp. 1821.


GEOINFORMATION SCIENCE


MINING INFORMATION SCIENCE AND BIG DATA CONCEPT FOR INTEGRATED SAFETY MONITORING IN SUBSOIL MANAGEMENT
I. V. Bychkov, D. Ya. Vladimirov, V. N. Oparin, V. P. Potapov, and Yu. I. Shokin

Matrosov Institute for System Dynamics and Control Theory,
Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Lermontova 134, Irkutsk, 664033 Russia
e-mail: idstu@icc.ru
VIST Group,
Dokuchaev per. 3, Bld. 1, Moscow, 107078 Russia
vladimirov@vistgroup.ru
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
e-mail: oparin@misd.ncs.ru
Kemerovo Division, Institute of Computational Technologies,
Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Rukavishnikova 21, Kemerovo, 650025 Russia
e-mail: ict@ict.nsc.ru
Institute of Computational Technologies, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
pr. Akademika Lavrentieva 6, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
e-mail: ict@ict.nsc.ru

The discussed challenge and its prospects in mining geoinformation science are connected with Big Data conceptflows of large sets of various data on mining. The authors describe Big Data technology and its general implementation on mini-clusters using Hadoop and MapReduce with case studies presented.

Big Data, intelligent analysis, computational and mini-clusters, raw data sets, geomechanical and geodynamic data flow computing, cloud computing, distributed computing, safe subsoil management

DOI: 10.1134/S1062739116061747 

REFERENCES
1. Oparin, V.N., Rusin, E.P., Tapsiev, A.P., Freidin, A.M., and Badtiev, B.P., Mirovoi opyt avtomatizatsii gornykh rabot na podzemnykh rudnikakh (International Experience in Underground Mine Automation), N. N. Melnikov (Ed.), Novosibirsk: SO RAN, 2007.
2. Trubetskoy, K.N., Kuleshov, A.A., Klebanov, A.F., and Vladimirov, D.Ya., Sovremennye sistemy upravleniya gorno-transportnymi kompleksami (State-of-the-Art Systems to Manage Mining and Transportation Systems), K. N. Trubetskoy (Ed.), Saint-Petersburg: Nauka, 2007.
3. Adushkin, V.V. and Oparin, V.N., From the Alternating-Sign Explosion Response of Rocks to the Pendulum Waves in Stressed Geomedia, J. Min. Sci., Part I: 2012, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 203?222; Part II: 1013, vol.49, no. 2, pp. 175?209; Part III: 2014, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 623?645; Part IV: 2016, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 1?35.
4. Bychkov, I.V., Oparin, V.N., and Potapov, V.P., Cloud Technologies in Mining Geoinformation Science, J. Min. Sci., 2014, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 142154.
5. Potapov, V.P., Matematicheskoe i informatsionnoe modelirovanie geosistem ugolnykh predpriyatii (Mathematical and Informational Simulation of Coal Mine Geosystems), Novosibirsk: SO RAN, 1999.
6. Oparin, V.N., Potapov, V.P., Yushkin, V.F., and Kiriltseva, N.A., An Approach to Development of an Information Geomechanical Structural Model of the Kuznetsk Coal Basin, J. Min. Sci., 2006, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 224244.
7. Oparin, V.N., Potapov, V.P., Popov, S.E., Zamaraev, R.Yu., and Kharlampenkov, I.E., Development of Distributed GIS Capacities to Monitor Migration of Seismic Events, J. Min. Sci., 2010, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 666671.
8. Potapov, V.P., Oparin, V.N., Logov, A.B., Zamaraev, R.Yu., and Popov, S.E., Regional Geomechanical?Geodynamic Control Geoinformation System with Entropy Analysis of Seismic Events in Terms of Kuzbass, J. Min. Sci., 2013, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 482488.
9. Logov, A.B., Oparin, V.N., Potapov, V.P., Schastlivtsev, E.L., and Yukina, N.I., Entropy Analysis of Process Wastewater Composition in Mineral Mining Region, J. Min. Sci., 2015, vol. 51, no.1, pp. 186196.
10. Oparin, V.N., Potapov, V.P., Giniyatullina, O.L., and Kharlampenkov, I.E., Fractal Analysis of Geodynamic Event Migration Paths in the Kuzbass Area, J. Min. Sci., 2012, vol.48, no. 3, pp. 474479.
11. Potapov, V.P., Oparin, V.N., Giniyatullina, O.L., and Kharlampenkov, I.E., Services for Cloud Computing and Seismic Data Processing for Geomechanically and Geodynamically Active Coal Mining Areas in Kuzbass, J. Min. Sci., 2015, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 609613.
12. Potapov, V.P., Oparin, V.N., Giniyatullina, O.L., and Kharlampenkov, I.E., Cloud Computing in Seismic Data Processing Based on Voronoi Diagrams Using GOOGLE APP ENGINE, J. Min. Sci., 2015, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 10411048.
13. Oparin, V.N., Potapov, V.P., Giniyatullina, O.L., and Schastlivtsev, E.L., Studies into the Process of Mine Waste Dump Filling up by Vegetations Using Remote Sensing Data, J. Min. Sci., 2013, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 976982.
14. Oparin, V.N., Potapov, V.P., Giniyatullina, O.L., and Andreeva, N.V., Water Body Pollution Monitoring in Vigorous Coal Extraction Areas Using Remote Sensing Data, J. Min. Sci., 2012, vol. 48, no. 5, 934940.
15. Oparin, V.N., Potapov, V.P., and Giniyatullina, O.L., Integrated Assessment of the Environmental Condition of the High-Loaded Industrial Areas by the Remote Sensing Data, J. Min. Sci., 2014, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 10791087.
16. Oparin, V.N., Potapov, V.P., Giniyatullina, O.L., Andreeva, N.B., Schastlivtsev, E.L., and Bykov, A.A., Evaluation of Dust Pollution of Air in Kuzbass Coal Mining Areas in Winter by Data of Remote Earth Sensing, J. Min. Sci., 2014, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 549558.
17. Potapov, V.P., Oparin, V.N., Schastlivtsev, E.L., Giniyatullina, O.L., Kharlampenkov, I.E., and Sidorenko, P.V., An Approach to Multi-Layer Geoinformation System for Environmental Appraisal of Mining Regions Based on Biological Diversity, J. Min. Sci., 2016, vol. 52, no.4, pp. 818825.
18. Oparin, V.N., Potapov, V.P., Logov, A.B., Schastlivtsev, E.L., and Yukina, N.I., Identification of Pollutant Clusters in Trade Effluents in Kuzbass, J. Min. Sci., 2016, no. 5, pp. 10111019.
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NEW METHODS AND INSTRUMENTS IN MINING


OPEN-HOLE MULTISTAGE HYDRAULIC FRACTURING SYSTEM
S. V. Serdyukov, N. V. Degtyareva, A. V. Patutin, and T. V. Shilova

Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
e-mail: ss3032@yandex.ru

The presented system is intended for multistage hydraulic fracturing in long open holes of any orientation to create transversal fractures with a radius to 5 m in soft and medium-hard rocks. The downhole system has an inbuilt transport unit. This fracking equipment uses chemically active fluids generated in the fractured interval by mixture of two components injected in individual high-pressure hoses.

Multistage hydraulic fracturing, open hole, downhole equipment, inbuilt transport unit, anchor system of transversal fracturing, two-component breakdown fluid

DOI: 10.1134/S1062739116061759 

REFERENCES
1. Serdyukov, S.V. and Kurlenya, M.V., Application of Local Hydrofrac for the Intensification of Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage of Reservoir, Proc. InterExpo GEO-Sibir 2016, Novosibirsk, SGGA, 2016, vol. 4, pp. 813. .
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12. Khisamov, R.S., Ramazanov, R.G., Bakirov, I.M., Idiyatullina, Z.S., and Osnos, V.B., RF patent no. 2439298, Byull. Izobret., 2012, no. 1.


METHOD AND MEANS TO ESTIMATE POROSITY DISTRIBUTION ON THE SURFACE OF POLISHED SECTION OF COAL
A. S. Tanaino, B. B. Sivolap, E. A. Maksimovsky, and O. A. Persidskaya

Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
e-mail: tanaino@misd.ru

Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
pr. Akademika Lavrentieva 3, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia

The method is based on transcapillary penetration of fluorescent fluid (EpoDye colorant) in the finest cavities and flaws on the surface of polished sections. Luminophor-filed voids become visible under UV light and optical microscope. The voids are estimated with respect to their kinds, sizes and area. The estimates and the statistical property of void distribution are described.

Coal, planar porosity, fluorescence, microscopic and structural analysis, laboratory experiment

DOI: 10.1134/S1062739116061760 

REFERENCES
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